Linalool. You don't have to be an aromatherapy expert to know that lavender has calming sedative effects, aids sleep and can even help with. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Sedative properties of linalool | Linalool is a Several linalool-producing species are used in traditional medical systems, it may be used as an antimicrobial or an insect repellant or to produce a calming effect. .. A Contemporary Introduction to Essential Oils: Chemistry, Bioactivity and. Linalool is a monoterpene compound, commonly found as major component of that this compound has dose-dependent marked sedative effects at the CNS, .. the binary vector pHEX2 and introduced by transformation into A. tumefaciens.
Calming Introducing Linalool and Sedative –
Again, the reduction of the C-8 aldehyde to the respective alcohol gives the 8-hydroxylinalyl acetate with an odor threshold of Interestingly, the 8-carboxylinalyl acetate, the oxidation product of the 8-oxolinalyl acetate, retained the odor threshold 6.
From the previous results, one can deduce first insights into structure-odor relationships for the investigated linalool derivatives. Amongst others, the presence of a hydroxy group at C-3 in linalool is the main contributor to both odor quality and potency of all mentioned compounds in this study; thereby, the C-8 position does not contain any functionality in case of linalool.
On the contrary, the acetate derivative of this hydroxy group, linalyl acetate, displayed low odor potency. However, we could show that this is compensated by C-8 oxidation yielding 8-oxolinalyl acetate and the 8-carboxylinalyl acetate with low thresholds that are in a comparable range as the threshold of linalool but eliciting different odor attributes.
On the other hand we could show that the reduced moiety at the C-8 oxidation products yielding the corresponding hydroxy function, does not positively contribute to odor potency, irrespective of whether the C-3 bares a hydroxy or an ester function; this structural modification resulted in the highest odor thresholds determined within this study.
To sum up, it can be concluded that in view of the investigated substances predominantly the C-3 substitution with a hydroxy group, a relatively non-voluminous and polar ligand, is important for high odor potency and the characteristic smell properties that are related to linalool. If this hydroxy group is esterified, then C-8 substitution with either an aldehyde or a carboxyl group is crucial to maintain the odor threshold, albeit, thereby losing the specific odor character.
Any other structural changes investigated within this study led to either drastic decrease in the potency or even total odor loss. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
We thank the members of our working group for their participation in the sensory analyses. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Chem v. Published online Oct 6. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Andrea Buettner, Erlangen, Germany ed.
This article was submitted to Food Chemistry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Chemistry. Received Jul 31; Accepted Sep The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Linalool 1 is an odorant that is commonly perceived as having a pleasant odor, but is also known to elicit physiological effects such as inducing calmness and enhancing sleep.
Linalool, linalyl acetate, gas chromatography-olfactometry, odor threshold in air, 8-oxolinalyl acetate, 8-carboxylinalyl acetate, odor qualities, retention index. Introduction In folk medicines as well as aroma therapy, essential oils and fragrance compounds are being used as therapeutic agents for relieving pain, anxiety reduction and energy enhancement Lahlou, ; Kako et al.
Open in a separate window. Table 1 Retention indices and occurrence of linalool and its derivatives. Materials and methods Chemicals The following chemicals were purchased from the suppliers given in parentheses: General methods All reactions requiring anhydrous conditions were carried out under nitrogen and the solvents were dried before use to remove moisture using appropriate drying solvents.
Evaluation of odor quality The odor qualities were determined during GC-O evaluation by the aid of panelists who were trained volunteers from the University of Erlangen Erlangen, Germany , exhibiting no known illness at the time of examination and with audited olfactory function. Determination of odor thresholds Odor thresholds were determined in air following the procedure described by Czerny et al.
E -3,7-dimethyloxoocta-1,6-dienol 3 , 8-oxolinalool Following GP1, from 1 4. E -3,7-dimethyloxoocta-1,6-dienyl-acetate 4 , 8-oxolinalyl acetate Following GP1, from 2 5 g, 25 mmol and selenium dioxide 2. Procedure 2 E hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dienyl-acetate 5 , 8-hydroxylinalyl acetate Compound 4 mg, 3.
Procedure 3 E -2, 6-dimethylocta-2,7-diene-1,6-diol 6 , 8-hydroxylinalool Compound 5 mg, 1. General procedure 4 GP4 Pinnick oxidation was used for the following syntheses Pinnick et al. E hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic-acid 7 , 8-carboxylinalool Following GP4, Compound 3 mg, 4.
E acetoxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic-acid 8 , 8-carboxylinalyl acetate Following GP4, compound 4 0. Table 2 Odor qualities of all eight panelists P1 to P8 and median of the odor threshold of all compounds.
Conclusion From the previous results, one can deduce first insights into structure-odor relationships for the investigated linalool derivatives. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments We thank the members of our working group for their participation in the sensory analyses. A comparison of the essential oil chemical composition of Origanum vulgare L.
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Fruits of Euterpe oleracea q , flower of Albizia julibrissin r. Trace amounts in Jabara Citrus jabara Hort ex. Examples of Even Hybrids include S. These strains tend to be a balance of Limonene, Beta-Caryophyllene and Myrcene giving them Floral flavor. Clear Hybrids are recommended for patients looking for a balance of mental and physical relief, but more on the clear side.
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Lavender and the Nervous System
Introduction retrograde amnesia, and sedation for BDZs) of these drugs can be Several compounds extracted from lavender, such as linalool, were reported to have anxiolytic effects (De Sousa et al., ). Introduction The main constituents of lavender are linalool, linalyl acetate, antidepressive, anxiolytic, sedative, and calming properties [1. INTRODUCTION. Linalool [2 . medicine for their anticonvulsant effects, their sedative effects, and . to the calm linalool produced in human volunteers (Ku-.