“Then I started having negative feelings about myself and my own abilities. I hated NIDA, Mar ; “Recreational marijuana use and acute ischemic stroke : A. Marijuana use may have a wide range of effects, both physical and mental. . who use marijuana can feel some very uncomfortable side effects, especially. But smoking marijuana can have some bad effects on your health, uses in treatment the side effects of chemotherapy and treating epilepsy.
Side Effects Marijuana The Use of
This means that marijuana use can affect the brain in various ways and cause:. Marijuana has also been linked to mental health problems. Typically, the younger the person is when they begin using marijuana, the more chance they have of developing a mental illness.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse , studies show that marijuana use, especially in high amounts, can increase rates of depression, schizophrenia and anxiety. However, it is also difficult to determine if the mental illness appears first and the person uses marijuana to self-medicate, or if marijuana causes the mental illness.
Marijuana also affects the heart and lungs in certain ways. Marijuana can affect the lungs because of the amount of carcinogens in marijuana smoke. In fact, it can contain up to 70 percent more carcinogens than tobacco smoke, and this can irritate the lungs. Marijuana can also increase the risk of lung infections and chest illnesses. Peak levels of intoxication typically last an average of three to four hours.
When taken orally in the form of capsules, food or drink , the psychoactive effects take longer to manifest and generally last longer, typically lasting for an average of four to ten hours after consumption. Also, oral ingestion use eliminates the need to inhale toxic combustion products created by smoking and therefore negates the risk of respiratory harm associated with cannabis smoking.
The areas of the brain where cannabinoid receptors are most prevalent are consistent with the behavioral effects produced by cannabinoids. Brain regions in which cannabinoid receptors are very abundant are the basal ganglia , associated with movement control; the cerebellum , associated with body movement coordination; the hippocampus , associated with learning , memory, and stress control; the cerebral cortex , associated with higher cognitive functions; and the nucleus accumbens , regarded as the reward center of the brain.
Other regions where cannabinoid receptors are moderately concentrated are the hypothalamus , which regulates homeostatic functions; the amygdala , associated with emotional responses and fears ; the spinal cord , associated with peripheral sensations like pain; the brain stem , associated with sleep , arousal , and motor control; and the nucleus of the solitary tract , associated with visceral sensations like nausea and vomiting.
Experiments on animal and human tissue have demonstrated a disruption of short-term memory formation,  which is consistent with the abundance of C receptors on the hippocampus, the region of the brain most closely associated with memory. Cannabinoids inhibit the release of several neurotransmitters in the hippocampus such as acetylcholine , norepinephrine , and glutamate , resulting in a decrease in neuronal activity in that area.
Compared to currently approved drugs prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, THC is a considerably superior inhibitor of A aggregation, and this study provides a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism through which cannabinoid molecules may impact the progression of this debilitating disease. While several studies have shown increased risk associated with cannabis use by drivers, other studies have not found increased risk.
In Cannabis and driving: Where they can compensate, they do A meta-analysis found that acute cannabis use increased the risk of an automobile crash.
In the largest and most precisely controlled study of its kind carried out by the U. Likewise better controlled studies have found lower or no elevated crash risk estimates".
Short-term one to two hours effects on the cardiovascular system can include increased heart rate, dilation of blood vessels, and fluctuations in blood pressure. Indeed, marijuana may be a much more common cause of myocardial infarction than is generally recognized. In day-to-day practice, a history of marijuana use is often not sought by many practitioners, and even when sought, the patient's response is not always truthful".
A analysis of 3, myocardial infarction survivors over an year period showed "no statistically significant association between marijuana use and mortality". A study by the National Institutes of Health Biomedical Research Centre in Baltimore found that heavy, chronic smoking of marijuana joints per week changed blood proteins associated with heart disease and stroke.
A study by researchers at Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center , Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard School of Public Health found that a middle-age person's risk of heart attack rises nearly fivefold in the first hour after smoking marijuana, "roughly the same risk seen within an hour of sexual activity".
Cannabis arteritis is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. There were about 50 confirmed cases from to , all of which occurred in Europe. A confounding factor in cannabis research is the prevalent usage of other recreational drugs, especially alcohol and nicotine. Some critics question whether agencies doing the research make an honest effort to present an accurate, unbiased summary of the evidence, or whether they "cherry-pick" their data to please funding sources which may include the tobacco industry or governments dependent on cigarette tax revenue; others caution that the raw data, and not the final conclusions, are what should be examined.
The Australian National Household Survey of  showed that cannabis in Australia is rarely used without other drugs. Evidence from a controlled experimental study undertaken by Lukas and Orozco  suggests that alcohol causes THC to be absorbed more rapidly into the blood plasma of the user. Data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing  found that three-quarters of recent cannabis users reported using alcohol when cannabis was not available, this suggests that the two are substitutes.
Studies on cannabis and memory are hindered by small sample sizes, confounding drug use, and other factors. In a study looking at neuropsychological performance in long-term cannabis users, researchers found "some cognitive deficits appear detectable at least 7 days after heavy cannabis use but appear reversible and related to recent cannabis exposure rather than irreversible and related to cumulative lifetime use".
From neuropsychological tests, Pope found that chronic cannabis users showed difficulties, with verbal memory in particular, for "at least a week or two" after they stopped smoking.
Within 28 days, memory problems vanished and the subjects "were no longer distinguishable from the comparison group". Their findings were published in the July issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. Researchers looked at data from 15 previously published controlled studies involving long-term cannabis users and nonusers. The results showed long-term cannabis use was only marginally harmful on the memory and learning. Other functions such as reaction time, attention, language, reasoning ability, perceptual and motor skills were unaffected.
The observed effects on memory and learning, they said, showed long-term cannabis use caused "selective memory defects", but that the impact was "of a very small magnitude".
The feeling of increased appetite following the use of cannabis has been documented for hundreds of years,  and is known colloquially as "the munchies" in the English-speaking world. Clinical studies and survey data have found that cannabis increases food enjoyment and interest in food. Endogenous cannabinoids "endocannabinoids" were discovered in cow's milk and soft cheeses.
Most microorganisms found in cannabis only affect plants and not humans, but some microorganisms, especially those that proliferate when the herb is not correctly dried and stored, can be harmful to humans. Some users may store marijuana in an airtight bag or jar in a refrigerator to prevent fungal and bacterial growth.
The fungi Aspergillus flavus ,  Aspergillus fumigatus ,  Aspergillus niger ,  Aspergillus parasiticus , Aspergillus tamarii , Aspergillus sulphureus , Aspergillus repens , Mucor hiemalis not a human pathogen , Penicillium chrysogenum , Penicillium italicum and Rhizopus nigrans have been found in moldy cannabis.
Researchers suggest that moldy cannabis should thus be discarded to avoid these serious risks. Mold is also found in smoke from mold-infected cannabis,   and the lungs and nasal passages are a major means of contracting fungal infections. Oven treatment killed conidia of A. Cannabis contaminated with Salmonella muenchen was positively correlated with dozens of cases of salmonellosis in Exposure to marijuana may have biologically-based physical, mental, behavioral and social health consequences and is "associated with diseases of the liver particularly with co-existing hepatitis C , lungs, heart, eyesight and vasculature" according to a literature review by Gordon and colleagues.
The association with these diseases has only been reported in cases where people have smoked cannabis. The authors cautioned that "evidence is needed, and further research should be considered, to prove causal associations of marijuana with many physical health conditions".
Cannabis use disorder is defined in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 as a condition requiring treatment. Such drugs include bupropion , divalproex , nefazodone , lofexidine , and dronabinol. Of these, dronabinol has proven the most effective. Cannabis consumption in pregnancy might be associated with restrictions in growth of the fetus, miscarriage, and cognitive deficits in offspring based on animal studies, although there is limited evidence for this in humans at this time.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cannabis and impaired driving. Long-term effects of cannabis and Cannabis dependence. Journal of Natural Products. Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 29 November Markus; Koethe, Dagmar Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Submitted manuscript. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved 30 June Assessing The Science Base. National Academy of Sciences Press. Principles of Medical Pharmacology 6th ed. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
An Introduction 5th ed. Retrieved 4 August Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use". Marijuana abuse can lead to dependence and withdrawal upon cessation of use. Withdrawal symptoms may include:. The symptoms will begin within a day of abstinence.
These symptoms then peak after days and will subside within weeks. Marijuana Effects Quiz question 6. Marijuana addiction can be treated by a rehabilitation center or in outpatient treatment.
Behavioral interventions, which may include cognitive-behavioral therapy , are used to help during rehabilitation therapy. For more information on how marijuana addiction is treated, contact our hour hotline at Who Answers? There is no simple…. For those seeking addiction treatment for themselves or a loved one, the DrugAbuse.
Our helpline is offered at no cost to you and with no obligation to enter into treatment. Finding the perfect treatment is only one phone call away! Additionally, addiction and withdrawal can be common with marijuana use. Try Putting Down the Marijuana… Weed: Last updated on November 25, T Atlanta , GA Foundations Wellness Center of Pennsylvania. York , PA Boca Raton , FL It's not too late to turn your life around
Effects of cannabis
Learn more about Marijuana uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Marijuana. The negative effect of marijuana use on the functional connectivity of the brain is particularly prominent if use starts in adolescence or young adulthood, which. Since then, many states have made it legal to use marijuana "In some cases, reported side effects of THC include elation, anxiety.