medical cannabis for patients and researchers through legislation, advocacy and providing services for patients, governments, medical .. Americans for Safe Access, Report on Medical Cannabis Research This led to an explosion of domestic and international research .. Baker D, Pryce G. Keywords: medicinal marijuana, cannabis, endocannabinoid a medical document to authorize patients to access a specific quantity of .. research on the long-term outcomes of MM in MS patients is .. physicians should advocate against heavy and early cannabis use. .. McCagh J, Fisk JE, Baker GA. It's a tough choice for patients: $/month for CBD or $11/month for Advil. The good news is that it's . Gordon Baker, a medical cannabis researcher and patient advocate, contributed to this report. Medical Marijuana News &.
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As long as cannabis remains federally outlawed, American businesspeople have to reckon with the liability of, technically, aiding and abetting illicit activity, a risk many have decided is not worth taking.
For now, Cowen, the lead U. That makes Tilray even more of an outlier. It was not only the highest-flying IPO of , according to Renaissance Capital, but also one of the top 10 performers in the U. That ironic result was possible under stock exchange rules because Tilray operated exclusively outside America. The company will only do business in jurisdictions where cannabis is federally legal, and it has had zero U.
As a result, the only Americans who have so far enjoyed the fruits of its economic contributions are stock investors and its U. Kennedy, whose predictions about legalization have been profitable so far, believes an end to the U. But for now, the precarious legal dynamic gnaws at him every time he crosses back from Nanaimo into his native country. While Kennedy has never been questioned, he has reason to be nervous: A few Canadian cannabis executives and investors have been detained at the border and even barred entry to the U.
Customs and Border Protection agency confirms that even American executives operating legally in Canada can face additional inspections upon their return. Geoff Lewis, the partner who led the investment and has since started his own fund, Bedrock , had the same experience with a dozen cannabis startups while looking for one to back. Kennedy can count on his fingers the number of times he tried pot before going into the business. He grew up in San Francisco as the sixth of seven children; his siblings would smoke, but Kennedy shied away.
He was born with a cleft lip that required repair surgery when he was 8 days old; his parents, fearful for his welfare, summoned a priest to baptize him before he even left the hospital. During his time at the then all-boys Jesuit prep school St. Ignatius—where his dad was a science teacher—and at UC Berkeley studying architecture, Kennedy worked construction. He later funneled his thirst for physical exertion into six Ironman triathlons.
What Kennedy did have in his DNA was a knack for scanning data for auguries of the future and an uncanny memory for dates and figures.
After business school, he landed in at Silicon Valley Bank, working for an internal analytics startup focused on helping venture capitalists and their portfolio companies value their private stock.
During the spring of , the data began telling Kennedy a story about cannabis. Pulling Gallup poll charts on American attitudes toward controversial issues, he noticed a compelling trend: Support for gay marriage and marijuana legalization seemed to increase in lockstep, and state laws were following suit.
The number of doctors willing to prescribe medical pot was steadily increasing. The doubts that dogged Kennedy the longest stemmed from his own ambivalence about the product. Kennedy struggled to reconcile the enthusiasm he was hearing for therapeutic use from military vets and cancer patients with his own antidrug upbringing. In some ways, they were building a field of dreams within cannabis—give people a bona fide market, and investors and politicians will come. Kennedy officially quit his job in the spring of One morning a few months later, he showed up with a PowerPoint presentation at the home of his old boss, Jim Anderson, the former president of SVB Analytics.
The presentation was the genesis of Privateer Holdings, a private equity firm with a mission to acquire and create cannabis companies and brands.
Kennedy made a data-driven case for how he expected legalization would unfurl. Privately, though, Kennedy and his cofounders often wondered if they were too early. Leafly, a marijuana and dispensary review site. The startup had next to no sales, but it did publish ratings on cannabis strains—sold legally or on the street—from users all over the world, providing a road map to the best pot on the planet.
Once they had it, they needed to monetize it. The plan was to sell advertising to dispensaries, turning Leafly into a kind of Yelp for cannabis.
But Privateer struggled to attract investors, and revenue was slow to come. Soon Kennedy had drained his k , maxed out his credit cards, and borrowed money from family members to pour into Leafly.
More than being broke, Kennedy and his partners feared what flaming out on a Hail Mary bet on pot would do to their career prospects. In , Washington and Colorado became the first states to legalize recreational marijuana, and investors—and Leafly advertisers—wanted in.
But perhaps the biggest opportunity came about almost by accident. Health Canada had dozens of eager applicants who lacked funding to support a commercial marijuana grow operation and wondered if Privateer might invest.
Unimpressed with the offerings, Kennedy and his partners had a different idea: Why not become growers themselves? All they needed was marijuana. The Privateer team crunched data from the site to identify the 20 most coveted, high-potency strains across Canada—creating a shopping list for themselves.
Actually locating the bud was another story. As the drug has increasingly come to be seen as a health issue instead of criminal behavior, marijuana has also been legalized or decriminalized in: Between and , eleven states decriminalized marijuana. In the US, men are over twice as likely to use marijuana as women and year-olds are six times more likely to use as over year-olds. Marijuana use in the United States is three times above the global average, but in line with other Western democracies.
It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late s and early '70s when THC was first discovered and understood.
However, potent seedless cannabis such as " Thai sticks " were already available at that time. Sinsemilla Spanish for "without seed" is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants which produce little THC themselves are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination.
Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics , cloning , high-intensity artificial lighting , and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response in part to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky.
It is often cited that the average levels of THC in cannabis sold in the United States rose dramatically between the s and , but such statements are likely skewed because undue weight is given to much more expensive and potent, but less prevalent samples.
It is a cross-breed of Cannabis sativa and C. The price or street value of cannabis varies widely depending on geographic area and potency. The Gateway Hypothesis states that cannabis use increases the probability of trying "harder" drugs.
The hypothesis has been hotly debated as it is regarded by some as the primary rationale for the United States prohibition on cannabis use. Some studies state that while there is no proof for the gateway hypothesis,  young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs. The gateway effect may appear due to social factors involved in using any illegal drug.
Because of the illegal status of cannabis, its consumers are likely to find themselves in situations allowing them to acquaint with individuals using or selling other illegal drugs. In turn alcohol and tobacco are easier to obtain at an earlier point than is cannabis though the reverse may be true in some areas , thus leading to the "gateway sequence" in those individuals since they are most likely to experiment with any drug offered.
An alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the common liability to addiction CLA theory. It states that some individuals are, for various reasons, willing to try multiple recreational substances. The "gateway" drugs are merely those that are usually available at an earlier age than the harder drugs. Researchers have noted in an extensive review that it is dangerous to present the sequence of events described in gateway "theory" in causative terms as this hinders both research and intervention.
Cannabis research is challenging since the plant is illegal in most countries. There are also other difficulties in researching the effects of cannabis.
Many people who smoke cannabis also smoke tobacco. Another difficulty researchers have is in recruiting people who smoke cannabis into studies. Because cannabis is an illegal drug in many countries, people may be reluctant to take part in research, and if they do agree to take part, they may not say how much cannabis they actually smoke. A review found that the use of high CBD-to-THC strains of cannabis showed significantly fewer positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, better cognitive function and both lower risk for developing psychosis, as well as a later age of onset of the illness, compared to cannabis with low CBD-to-THC ratios.
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The most consistently reported brain alteration was reduced hippocampal volume which was shown to persist even after several months of abstinence in one study and also to be related to the amount of cannabis use Other frequently reported morphological brain alterations related to chronic cannabis use were reported in the amygdala the cerebellum and the frontal cortex These findings may be interpreted as reflecting neuroadaptation, perhaps indicating the recruitment of additional regions as a compensatory mechanism to maintain normal cognitive performance in response to chronic cannabis exposure, particularly within the prefrontal cortex area.
Evidence from Studies of Adult Users". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. This may reflect the multitude of cognitive tasks employed by the various studies included in these meta-analyses, all of which involved performing a task thereby requiring the participant to reorient their attention and attempt to solve the problem at hand and suggest that greater engagement of this region indicates less efficient cognitive performance in cannabis users in general, irrespective of their age.
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Gordon. Dr. Barry Gordon. Brittany Baker Photography. Dr. Barry Patients can get medical marijuana in pill form, sublingual tincture oils, But we do not have enough research and background for me to define utilizing marijuana as a appropriately, with education, advocacy and respect for the patient. cancer research, education, and patient advocacy. Our highly Indiana University School of Medicine sional commitment, contribution to the progress of oncology . Authors: Adra N, Albany C, Brames MJ, Case-Eads S, . Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary Pictured: Janie Gordon with Courage to Climb student. Your contribution will help us with our questionnaire, which is the other I am attending the UNODC CND in March , advocating for gender If anyone in Australia would like Free Medicinal Cannabis for research, then . de writingdesk.pw data reporting system at each level and interaction between a patient and their.