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In this largest study of intravenous THC , it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals.
The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences. How Cannabis Causes Paranoia: Many young people consume ecstasy as a recreational drug and often in combination with cannabis.
THC increased the area staining for glial fibrilar acidic protein in both sexes. In males, both drugs, either separately or in combination, increased the proportion of reactive microglia cells [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 Iba-1 ]. In contrast, in females, each drug, administered alone, decreased of this proportion, whereas the combination of both drugs resulted in a 'normalization' to control values.
This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids To view the other articles in this section visit http: Background and PurposeMany young people consume ecstasy as a recreational drug and often in combination with cannabis. Key Results THC increased the area staining for glial fibrilar acidic protein in both sexes. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age.
Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas GHG emissions. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project.
We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions.
Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.
Global deserts occupy one-third of the Earth's surface and contribute significantly to organic carbon storage, a process at risk in dryland ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to climate-driven ecosystem degradation. The forces controlling desert ecosystem degradation rates are poorly understood, particularly with respect to the relevance of the arid-soil microbiome.
Here we document correlations between increasing aridity and soil bacterial and archaeal microbiome composition along arid to hyperarid transects traversing the Atacama Desert, Chile.
A meta-analysis reveals that Atacama soil microbiomes exhibit a gradient in composition, are distinct from a broad cross-section of nondesert soils, and yet are similar to three deserts from different continents. Community richness and diversity were significantly positively correlated with soil relative humidity SoilRH. Phylogenetic composition was strongly correlated with SoilRH, temperature, and electrical conductivity.
In addition, network analysis revealed a deterioration in the density of significant associations between taxa along the arid to hyperarid gradient, a pattern that may compromise the resilience of hyperarid communities because they lack properties associated with communities that are more integrated.
In summary, results suggest that arid-soil microbiome stability is sensitive to aridity as demonstrated by decreased community connectivity associated with the transition from the arid class to the hyperarid class and the significant correlations observed between soilRH and both diversity and the relative abundances of key microbial phyla.
To study the expression level and significance of glucose transporter 1 Glut-1 in normal breast tissue, adenosis, adenoma and breast carcinoma. A total of cases of female breast tissue samples, including 92 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, 26 cases of breast fibroadenoma, 24 cases of breast adenosis and 5 cases of normal breast tissues, were collected for quantitative detection of the expression of Glut-1 protein by immunohistochemistry EnVision method and Western blot, and its mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR.
In normal breast tissue and benign lesions of the breast, Glut-1 was undetectable or only weakly detectable in cytoplasm of ductal and acinar epithelia. Glucose transport activity, as indicated by Glut-1 protein and its mRNA expression, significantly increases in breast carcinoma than non-cancerous lesions.
The over-expression of Glut-1 in breast carcinoma is tightly coupled with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, implying that Glut-1 may serve as a new marker in the early diagnosis and prognostication of breast malignancy as well as a new therapeutic target.
This study was designed to develop and validate a rodent chamber suitable for controlled exposure to vaporized THC in a propylene glycol vehicle, using an e-cigarette delivery system adapted to standard size, sealed rat housing chambers. Hypothermic responses to inhaled THC in male rats depended on the duration of exposure and the concentration of THC in the vehicle.
Male rat tail-flick latency was increased by THC vapor inhalation; this effect was blocked by SR pretreatment. This approach is flexible, robust and effective for use in laboratory rats and will be of increasing utility as users continue to adopt "vaping" for the administration of cannabis.
Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure COP is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. Seven healthy male subjects years of age were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination.
Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP hours following exercise exercise: Significance in the increase of women psychiatrists in Korea. The number of female doctors has increased in Korea; This trend has had strong influence on the field of psychiatry; the percentage of women psychiatrists rose from 1.
This is not only a reflection of a social phenomenon of the increase in professional women but also attributed to some specific characteristics of the psychiatry. Psychiatric practice may come more natural to women. While clinical activities of women psychiatrists are expanding, there are few women leaders and much less women are involving in academic activities in this field as yet.
Though there is less sexual discrimination in the field of psychiatry, women psychiatrists are still having a lot of difficulties in balancing work and family matters. Many women psychiatrists also report they've ever felt an implied discrimination in their careers. In this study, we are to identify the characteristics of women psychiatrists and to explore the significance of the increase in women psychiatrists in Korea and the situation in which they are.
Work place drug testing of police officers after THC exposure during large volume cannabis seizures. Police officers responsible for the seizure and removal of illegally grown cannabis plants from indoor and outdoor growing operations face the prospect of THC exposure while performing their work duties.
As a result, a study investigating the amount of THC on hands and uniforms of officers during raids on cannabis growing houses CGHs and forest cannabis plantations FCPs and in the air at these sites was conducted.
Results of hand swabs indicated that officers removing plants from FCPs were exposed to THC concentrations up to 20 times those involved in raids at CGHs, which was mainly associated with the number and size of plants seized. Air samples collected inside cannabis houses showed no detectable THC. Air samples collected inside the cargo area of the storage trucks used during FCP raids indicated that THC can be volatilised when lush plants are compressed by other seized plants loaded on top of them in the truck over a period of several days, allowing composting of plants at the bottom of the load to commence.
Removal of cannabis plants by officers often resulted in cuts, abrasions and ruptured blisters on exposed skin surfaces, particularly at FCPs. The results in this study suggest that even when small areas of damaged skin are directly exposed to THC by contact transfer, the likelihood of showing a positive THC urine test is low. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol THC inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro.
The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol THC , has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function.
After primary infection the viral DNA genome of gamma herpesviruses persists in lymphoid cell nuclei in a latent episomal circular form. In response to extracellular signals, the latent virus can be activated, which leads to production of infectious virus progeny.
Therefore, we evaluated the potential effects of THC on gamma herpesvirus replication. Tissue cultures infected with various gamma herpesviruses were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of THC and the amount of viral DNA or infectious virus yield was compared to those of control cultures.
Inhibition of the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter activity was measured by the dual luciferase method. Importantly, concentrations of THC that inhibit virus replication of gamma herpesviruses have no effect on cell growth or HSV-1 replication, indicating selectivity.
These studies may also provide the foundation for the development. Twenty-one MS patients were screened, and 15 cases have been evaluated. A complete neurological evaluation, including the assessment of their spasticity using the Modified Ashworth Scale MAS and the spasticity numerical rating scale NRS , was performed at the same times. Mobility was evaluated through the ft walking-time test TWT. Increased diffuse radiation fraction does not significantly accelerate plant growth.
This holds regardless of whether the sink is the result of 1 An increase in NPP, or 2 The combined effect of a temperature-driven decrease in heterotrophic respiration Rh and no change in NPP.
This is since both NPP and Rh peak in summer. Another indicator of annual NPP is tree wood increment. Previous work Krakauer et al. These results are also inconsistent with substantial NPP enhancement, although a limitation of the tree-ring approach is that available measurements do not uniformly sample the latitude band.
The combined evidence of tree rings and the CO2 seasonal cycle shows that the enhancement of NPP by scattering aerosols on annual timescales is weak. This result suggests that reducing aerosols through stricter pollution controls may strengthen the land carbon sink, while geo-engineering schemes which aim to mitigate global warming by spreading scattering aerosols in the stratosphere may weaken it.
However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. Cannabinoids and metabolites in expectorated oral fluid after 8 days of controlled around-the-clock oral THC administration. Oral fluid OF is an increasingly accepted matrix for drug testing programs, but questions remain about its usefulness for monitoring cannabinoids.
THC was detected in only The highest THC concentrations were obtained at admission median 1. A total of 2. THC is currently the only analyte for monitoring cannabis exposure in OF; however, these data indicate chronic therapeutic oral THC administration and illicit oral THC use are unlikely to be identified with current guidelines.
Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J. Increasing Significance , Complexity and Contribution. During the past two decades, presentations at International Symposia on Society and Resource Management ISSRM have covered an increasingly broad scope of topics on natural resource issues. Long-term hippocampal glutamate synapse and astrocyte dysfunctions underlying the altered phenotype induced by adolescent THC treatment in male rats.
Cannabis use has been frequently associated with sex-dependent effects on brain and behavior. We previously demonstrated that adult female rats exposed to deltatetrahydrocannabinol THC during adolescence develop long-term alterations in cognitive performances and emotional reactivity, whereas preliminary evidence suggests the presence of a different phenotype in male rats.
To thoroughly depict the behavioral phenotype induced by adolescent THC exposure in male rats, we treated adolescent animals with increasing doses of THC twice a day PND and, at adulthood, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to measure affective- and psychotic-like symptoms as well as cognition.
Poorer memory performance and psychotic-like behaviors were present after adolescent THC treatment in male rats, without alterations in the emotional component. Furthermore, increases in the levels of the pre-synaptic marker, synaptophysin, and the post-synaptic marker, PSD95, were also present. Notably, none of these alterations was observed in the prefrontal cortex PFC. Together with our previous findings in females, these data suggest that the sex-dependent detrimental effects induced by adolescent THC exposure on adult behavior may rely on its.
Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro[ 1E 3-ethoxyphenyl ethenyl]-7 methyl[3- phosphooxy propyl 2 propynil -1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids deltatetrahydrocannabinol THC or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons.
This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH [2- 2-furanyl [3- 4-methoxyphenyl propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidinamine] and KW [ E -1, 3-diethyl 3,4-dimethoxystyryl methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC.
SCH produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.
Interactions between THC and cannabidiol in mouse models of cannabinoid activity. Interest persists in characterizing potential interactions between Delta 9 -tetrahydocannabinol THC and other marijuana constituents such as cannabidiol CBD. Such interactions may have important implications for understanding the long-term health consequences of chronic marijuana use as well as for attempts to develop therapeutic uses for THC and other CB 1 agonists.
We investigated whether CBD may modulate the pharmacological effects of intravenously administered THC or inhaled marijuana smoke on hypoactivity, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia, the well characterized models of cannabinoid activity. As the amount of CBD found in most marijuana strains in the US is considerably less than that of THC , these results suggest that CBD concentrations relevant to what is normally found in marijuana exert very little, if any, modulatory effects on CB 1 -receptor-mediated pharmacological effects of marijuana smoke.
Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in endometrial carcinoma. Alterations in p16 protein expression are associated with tumor development and progression. However, the p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has not been investigated in the endometrium. Therefore, we evaluated stromal p16 expression in different types of endometrial lesions using immunohistochemistry. Differences in the p16 expression status according to the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed.
This study included 62, 26, and 36 cases of benign, precancerous, and malignant endometrial lesions, respectively. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas precancerous lesions showed a variable degree of staining proportion and intensity. Endometrioid carcinoma EC , serous carcinoma SC , and carcinosarcoma showed significantly elevated stromal p16 expression levels compared with benign and precancerous lesions. In contrast, differences in stromal p16 expression among nonpathological endometrium, atrophic endometrium, endometrial polyp, and hyperplasia without atypia were not statistically significant.
Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma, and raise the possibility that p16 overexpression in the peritumoral stroma is associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior of endometrial SC. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments.
Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account.
Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise.
Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance. This report documents the development and validation of the mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic TH , thermal-hydrologic-chemical THC , and thermal-hydrologic-mechanical THM models. The purpose and validation criteria for these models are specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: The mountain-scale TH simulations provide predictions for thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature together called the flow fields.
The TH model captures mountain-scale three-dimensional flow effects, including lateral diversion and mountain-scale flow patterns. When coadministered in a 1: The majority of MDMA ecstasy recreational users also consume cannabis. Despite the rewarding effects that both drugs have, they induce several opposite pharmacological responses.
MDMA causes hyperthermia, oxidative stress and neuronal damage, especially at warm ambient temperature. However, THC , the main psychoactive compound of cannabis, produces hypothermic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Surprisingly, MDMA-induced DA terminal loss was only observed in animals housed at warm but not at room temperature, and this neurotoxic effect was reversed by THC administration.
Our results indicate that THC protects against MDMA neurotoxicity, and suggest that these neuroprotective actions are primarily mediated by the reduction of hyperthermia through the activation of CB 1 receptor, although CB 2 receptors may also contribute to. Our results indicate that THC protects against MDMA neurotoxicity, and suggest that these neuroprotective actions are primarily mediated by the reduction of hyperthermia through the activation of CB1 receptor, although CB2 receptors may also contribute to attenuate neuroinflammation in this.
Adolescent exposure to THC in female rats disrupts developmental changes in the prefrontal cortex. Current concepts suggest that exposure to THC during adolescence may act as a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. However, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability are still poorly understood. To analyze this, we investigated whether and how THC exposure in female rats interferes with different maturational events occurring in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence through biochemical, pharmacological and electrophysiological means.
We found that the endocannabinoid system undergoes maturational processes during adolescence and that THC exposure disrupts them, leading to impairment of both endocannabinoid signaling and endocannabinoid-mediated LTD in the adult prefrontal cortex. Finally, adolescent THC exposure altered cognition at adulthood.
All these effects seem to be triggered by the disruption of the physiological role played by the endocannabinoid system during adolescence. Indeed, blockade of CB1 receptors from early to late adolescence seems to prevent the occurrence of pruning at glutamatergic synapses. These results suggest that vulnerability of adolescent female rats to long-lasting THC adverse effects might partly reside in disruption of the pivotal role played by the endocannabinoid system in the prefrontal cortex maturation.
Results from these trials show that THC: CBD narrow ratio caused statistically significant reductions in neuropathic pain in patients with MS and other conditions.
In addition, improvements in other MS symptoms were observed as well. CBD narrow ratio have also been completed in patients with MS, spinal cord injury, neuropathic pain and a small number of patients with peripheral neuropathy secondary to diabetes mellitus or AIDS. CBD broad ratio has also been completed in a small number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as has a trial of High CBD in patients with neurogenic symptoms.
A phase II trial has also been evaluated with High THC in small numbers of patients for the treatment of perioperative pain. The phase II trials provided positive results and confirmed an excellent safety profile for cannabis-based medicines.
GW Pharmaceuticals received an IND approval to commence phase II clinical trials in Canada in patients with chronic pain, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury in Preclinical research with these extracts in the US is ongoing. Agonist replacement treatment is a promising strategy to manage cannabis-use disorders.
Subjects completed the multiple-choice procedure to assess drug reinforcement, and self-report, task performance and physiological measures were collected. Nabilone alone also elevated heart rate. These results replicate a previous study demonstrating that nabilone shares agonist effects with the active constituent of cannabis in cannabis users, and contribute further by indicating that nabilone would likely be safe and well tolerated when combined with cannabis.
These data support the conduct of future studies to determine if nabilone treatment would produce cross-tolerance to the abuse-related effects of cannabis and reduce cannabis use.
The purpose of this report REV04 is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical THC seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase.
This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2. The TWP Section 3.
The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. In humans, long-term marijuana use is associated with impaired impulse control and attentional capacity, though it has been difficult to distinguish pre-existing cognitive deficits from possible consequences of prolonged marijuana exposure.
If present in humans, these disruptions may impact academic and professional performance. Cannabis contains a number of phytocannabinoids in addition to THC , one of which, cannabidiol CBD , has been reported to antagonize some of the aversive effects of THC. Consistent with previous research, THC self-administration was modest and only evident in a subset of animals and unaffected by sex.
Cocaine self-administration was high and evident in the majority of animals tested, indicating that the design was sensitive to drug reinforcement. Future developments of animal models of THC self-administration and the examination of factors that affect its display remain important to establish procedures designed to assess the basis for and treatment of cannabis use and abuse. These results suggest that one mechanism by which gabapentin might facilitate cannabis abstinence is by producing effects that overlap with those of cannabinoids.
Tetrahydrocannabinol induces brain mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and increases oxidative stress: Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol THC , its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults.
We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide H2O2 production, measured with Amplex Red.
This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke. The selection has been conducted in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: The post-processing analysis for THC seepage THC -PPA documented in this report provides a methodology for evaluating the near-field compositions of water and gas around a typical waste emplacement drift as these relate to the chemistry of seepage, if any, into the drift.
The relationship between the post-processing analysis and other closely related models, together with their main functions in providing seepage chemistry information for the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application TSPA-LA , are illustrated in Figure The data selection methodology of the post-processing analysis Section 6. When co-administered in a 1: Cognitive and subjective dose-response effects of acute oral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC in infrequent cannabis users.
Although some aspects of memory functions are known to be acutely impaired by delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol delta 9 - THC ; the main active constituent of marijuana , effects on other aspects of memory are not known and the time course of functional impairments is unclear.
The present study aimed to detail the acute and residual cognitive effects of delta 9 - THC in infrequent cannabis users. A balanced, double-blind cross-over design was used to compare the effects of 7. Participants were assessed pre and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-drug. Delta 9 - THC 15 mg impaired performance on two explicit memory tasks at the time of peak plasma concentration 2 h post-drug.
At the same time point, performance on an implicit memory task was preserved intact. The higher dose of delta 9 - THC resulted in no learning whatsoever occurring over a three-trial selective reminding task at 2 h. Working memory was generally unaffected by delta 9 - THC. In several tasks, delta 9 - THC increased both speed and error rates, reflecting "riskier" speed-accuracy trade-offs. Subjective effects were also most marked at 2 h but often persisted longer, with participants rating themselves as "stoned" for 8 h.
Participants experienced a strong drug effect, liked this effect and, until 4 h, wanted more oral delta 9 - THC. No effects of delta 9 - THC were found 24 or 48 h following ingestion indicating that the residual effects of oral delta 9 - THC are minimal. These data demonstrate that oral delta 9 - THC impairs episodic memory and learning in a dose-dependent manner whilst sparing perceptual priming and working memory. Obesity is one of the highest preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world .
It has been well known for a long time that exposure to cannabis produces an increase of appetite a phenomenon referred to as the 'munchies'. This phenomenon led to an exploration of the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome. This effort subsequently led to the development of a successful therapeutic approach for obesity that consisted of blocking the cannabinoid CB1 receptors using ligands such as Rimonabant in order to produce weight loss and improve metabolic profile .
Despite being efficacious, Rimonabant was associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety and therefore removed from the market. We recently discovered that the prevalence of obesity is paradoxically much lower in cannabis users as compared to non-users and that this difference is not accounted for by tobacco smoking status and is still present after adjusting for variables such as sex and age.
Responding was maintained under a fixed ratio 5 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. Results Both training drugs dose-dependently increased the percentage of responses on the respective drug-associated levers. Cannabidiol up to Moreover, 8-OH-DPAT significantly attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of rimonabant, whereas cannabidiol did not modify the rimonabant discriminative stimulus.
Both training drugs dose-dependently increased the percentage of responses on the respective drug-associated levers. Larger doses might be necessary to affect cannabis use.
Five subjects received all doses and two experienced untoward side effects at lower doses. Low cannabinoid concentrations were associated with significant effects on drug- sensitive measures, although progressively greater levels did not lead to proportionately larger drug effects. Considerable variability in Cmax and tmax was observed. The balance between detrimental, pro-aging, often stochastic processes and counteracting homeostatic mechanisms largely determines the progression of aging.
There is substantial evidence suggesting that the endocannabinoid system ECS is part of the latter system because it modulates the physiological processes underlying aging. The activity of the ECS declines during aging, as CB1 receptor expression and coupling to G proteins are reduced in the brain tissues of older animals and the levels of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol 2-AG are lower.
However, a direct link between endocannabinoid tone and aging symptoms has not been demonstrated. This behavioral effect was accompanied by enhanced expression of synaptic marker proteins and increased hippocampal spine density. THC treatment restored hippocampal gene transcription patterns such that the expression profiles of THC -treated mice aged 12 months closely resembled those of THC -free animals aged 2 months.
The transcriptional effects of THC were critically dependent on glutamatergic CB1 receptors and histone acetylation, as their inhibition blocked the beneficial effects of THC.
Thus, restoration of CB1 signaling in old individuals could be an effective strategy to treat age-related cognitive impairments. Rebound hyperactivity, sensorimotor gating and epigenetic and neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic pathway. While there is abundant data on acute interactions between CBD and THC , few studies have assessed the impact of their repeated co-administration.
We previously reported that CBD inhibited or potentiated the acute effects of THC dependent on the measure being examined at a 1: Here we extend on these finding by examining over 15 days of treatment whether CBD modulated the repeated effects of THC on behaviour and neuroadaption markers in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway.
After acute locomotor suppression, repeated THC caused rebound locomotor hyperactivity that was modestly inhibited by CBD. These subtle effects were found at a 1: THC dose ratio but were not accentuated by a 5: These changes suggest that while CBD may have protective effects acutely, its long-term molecular actions on the brain are more complex and may be supradditive.
Deuterated d3 internal standards were added to 1-mL samples. Preparation involved acetonitrile precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction hexane: Selected reaction monitoring was employed. Blood samples were provided from a marijuana smoking study two participants and a CBD ingestion study eight participants. Preparation involved acetonitrile precipitation, liquid—liquid extraction hexane: Brain imaging study of the acute effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC on attention and motor coordination in regular users of marijuana.
In both sessions, a virtual reality maze task was performed during the FDG uptake period. When subject to the effects of 17 mg THC , regular marijuana smokers hit the walls more often on the virtual maze task than without THC. Compared to results without THC , 17 mg THC increased brain metabolism during task performance in areas that are associated with motor coordination and attention in the middle and medial frontal cortices and anterior cingulate, and reduced metabolism in areas that are related to visual integration of motion in the occipital lobes.
These findings suggest that in regular marijuana users, the immediate effects of marijuana may impact on cognitive-motor skills and brain mechanisms that modulate coordinated movement and driving.
Increase in cannabis use may indirectly affect the health status of a freshwater species. Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide and in some countries a new regulatory policy makes it legal under some restrictions. Variations in the activity of catalase CAT , superoxide dismutase SOD , glutathione peroxidase GPx , and glutathione S-transferase GST were measured, as well as levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content.
Genetic injuries were investigated by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, DNA diffusion assay, and the micronucleus test. A significant imbalance in antioxidant defense enzymes was noted in response to the 3 tested concentrations, whereas oxidative damage was noted only at the higher one.
Moreover, an increase in DNA fragmentation in zebra mussel hemocytes, but no fixed genetic damage, was found. Environ Toxicol Chem ; Students completed a 3-page survey during regularly scheduled class times. Results indicated students reported using synthetic THC for curiosity, to get…. Detection time for THC in oral fluid after frequent cannabis smoking. The use of oral fluid for detecting drugs of abuse has become increasingly more frequent. Few studies have, however, investigated the detection times for drugs of abuse in oral fluid, compared with that of in urine or in blood.
Cannabis is the world's most widely used drug of abuse, and the detection times for cannabis, in different types of matrixes, are therefore important information to the laboratories or institutions performing and evaluating drugs of abuse analyses.
It is well known that frequent use of high dosages of cannabis, for longer periods of time, might lead to prolonged detection times for THC -COOH in urine. Thank you for sharing. This is very interesting, You are a very skilled blogger. I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your great post.
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Led by a management team with solid experience in wearable technology, IoT, consumer electronics, mobile and technology licensing, as well as finance and the footwear industry, GTX plans to leverage its core technology platform to reach new verticals via licensing agreements and strategic partnerships, and to monetize its intellectual property portfolio.
The monetization campaign kicked off in has already identified companies that could become licensees. Besides military and law enforcement, the company also eyes the biometrics market, home health, medicare and insurance and other security applications for potential uses of its IoT platform and tracking technology.
GTX currently has 15 domestic and international distributors, subscribers in 35 countries and more than online affiliates. With multiple revenue streams, several consecutive years of double-digit revenue growth and a strong pipeline of lucrative commercial products, GTX is uniquely positioned to become a leading provider of tracking solutions on this growing multi-billion-dollar market. Hammer Fiber Optics Holdings Corp. HMMR , with headquarters in New Jersey, is a telecommunications company investing in the future of wireless technology.
Hammer Fiber recently completed the initial development phase of its advanced LTE fixed wireless system, which was designed and built upon its successfully deployed wireless technology suite. The expansion allows Hammer Fiber to add ultra-high capacity cellular broadband applications to its product portfolio including wholesale services such as backhaul support for cellular network operators. Designed to complement Hammer Fiber's core business of home residential service, the company expects this latest innovation to help position Hammer Fiber as a leader in future 5G technology.
Live field testing of the new system begins in early in the U. Hammer Fiber has also expanded its IaaS Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud services to include support for the cryptocurrency and blockchain industry. Interested companies will be able to host their products over Hammer Fiber's robust and modern server infrastructure, fiber network architecture and data center presence in some of the most secure locations in the New York, New Jersey and Philadelphia regions.
Hammer Fiber's servers feature best-in-class computing power, designed to allow enterprise businesses to reap the benefits of utilizing a cloud-based system without the massive cost of establishing or maintaining a corporate data center. Hammer Fiber seeks to achieve its vision by employing an extremely qualified group of business professionals with diverse backgrounds and successful track records from a variety of related industries.
HMMR's seasoned leadership team combines startup expertise with a consummate understanding of the regional competitive telecommunications landscape in sales, marketing, engineering, construction and business development. DJACF is a premium cannabis lifestyle brand growing high-quality handcrafted cannabis flower. Hiku's Dominion Facility is a state-of-the-art ACMPR licensed production facility capable of producing approximately kg year of dried cannabis flower.
Hiku's second facility, a 22, sq ft warehouse, "the FUTURE LAB", is targeting its Phase 1 completion by Q2 and once the facility is fully built-out utilizing an industry leading multi-tier system powered by LED lighting provided by Fluence BioEngineering, Hiku's annual production capacity is expected to be in excess of 5, kgs. It is anticipated that the combined company resulting from the merger will use the name "Hiku Brands Company Ltd.
APHQF to expand their product offering ahead of the recreational market. About Tokyo Smoke Founded in by Alan and Lorne Gertner, Tokyo Smoke is an award-winning cannabis lifestyle brand that brings sophistication and design to the fast-growing industry. With immersive experiences and design-first, non-dispensary retail spaces selling coffee, cannabis accessories and design products, the brand has six locations in Canada, with plans to expand nationwide.
Recently named "Brand of the Year" at the Canadian Cannabis Awards, Tokyo Smoke has showcased excellence in brand storytelling, and has developed an international reputation as the go-to destination for engaging content offerings within the industry. With the acquisition of fellow designer cannabis brand Van der Pop, and by partnering with Aphria Inc.
About Hiku Hiku is focused on handcrafted cannabis production, immersive retail experiences, and building a portfolio of iconic, engaging cannabis lifestyle brands. Hiku is differentiated as the only Canadian craft cannabis producer with a significant national retail footprint and a growing brand house including premium cannabis lifestyle brands DOJA, Tokyo Smoke, and Van der Pop.
The company operates a network of retail stores selling coffee, clothing and curated accessories, across British Columbia, Alberta and Ontario. KBEV develops and distributes nature-based products that boost brain function, enhance health, and improve productivity.
Its core vision is to help a billion people worldwide live more productively through the development of nootropics, which are supplements that improve cognitive abilities. The company's flagship product, Koios, is a GMP-certified dietary supplement. Made from natural ingredients and backed by science, Koios is designed to improve focus, memory, mental drive, clarity and energy. The company produces Koios in the following formulations:. Not to be mistaken with prescription-only drugs which are at times used for similar effects, nootropics are over-the-counter dietary supplements; some of which, like Koios, contain ingredients that are currently used in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
According to media reports, there is believed to be significant and growing use of nootropics among high-achieving students and professionals. The UK's leading Guardian newspaper found that nootropics are commonly used in Silicon Valley by computer industry professionals who want to "hack" their minds and maximize their productivity without any possible negative effects on the brain.
Miller found that the symptoms of his condition held him back when navigating the competitive modern workplace. Unhappy with the effects of the Adderall he was prescribed, Chris began a search for a natural remedy that would improve his attention and mental capacity. Speaking of his struggles at this time, Miller says, "Coffee and energy drinks were no longer helping me.
Eventually, I was drinking so much caffeine that I was beginning to notice negative and troubling health effects. Better technology that the earth was providing that I could implement and not only boost my daily performance but take care of my brain and body long-term. Additionally, safety is paramount for Koios, with all its products developed in a high-grade nutraceutical laboratory which is GMP-certified and in compliance with FDA guidelines.
Koios only uses high-quality ingredients sourced from the best possible locations in order to deliver a product that is not only safe but also "one of the world's greatest nootropic blends. The company's products can be found online and in stores, both across the United States and internationally, via a continuously growing distribution network.
With people seeking a mental edge and cognitive boost, Koios believes that there is an opening in the market for its nature-based, over-the-counter nootropics, especially when current prescription medicines have worrying side effects. LXRP has developed and out-licenses its proprietary technology for improved taste, rapidity, and delivery of bioactive compounds, including cannabinoids. Though boasting a wide range of health benefits, cannabinoids are traditionally poorly absorbed by the body's gastrointestinal tract.
To achieve higher effectiveness, consumers usually default to smoking. The key differentiator between Lexaria's products and others on the market is the company's disruptive technology proven to enhance the absorption of orally ingested cannabinoids while improving the "unusual" taste of cannabinoids and allowing for lower overall dosing with higher efficacy. Lexaria is primarily a B2B enterprise, and is in licensing discussions or has existing agreements with companies in Canada, the largest-market states in the USA, and internationally.
Lexaria has also developed its own brands partly for demonstration purposes, utilizing its patented technology to infuse hemp oil ingredients within lipids in popular foods. In , Lexaria commissioned an independent, third-party lab to test its technology under carefully monitored in vitro conditions. All of these sectors expected to offer additional future growth potential. Aside from testing, a critical component of Lexaria Bioscience's business model is a strong intellectual property portfolio that utilizes the most commonly used food processing techniques.
As of , the company's patent portfolio includes 19 patent applications filed and pending in more than 40 countries around the world. The most recent patent applications expand Lexaria's lipophilic food and beverage composition claims to include the processing of cannabinoids, vitamins, NSAIDs and nicotine in many of the world's most commonly used food processing ingredients.
Lexaria is expecting additional new patent awards both in the USA and internationally in and Royalties play a vital role in Lexaria's revenue-generating business model. He is supported by a team of professionals with extensive experience in pharmaceutical and bioscience sectors, invention, toxicology, consumer goods, and other relevant skillsets. LTMCF , headquartered in Canada, is advancing one of the largest lithium-rich exploration portfolios in Chile consisting of , hectares covering sections of 14 salars or mineral salt flats and one laguna complex.
The company's wholly owned premier properties include 66 square kilometers on the Salar de Atacama, Chile's largest mineral salt flat which hosts the world's highest concentration of lithium brine production and is currently the source of about 35 percent of the world's lithium production. Surface and near surface salt and brine sampling programs on all properties has been completed.
To date, samples of high-grade, near-surface lithium brines at each of these projects are showing excellent chemistry of lithium to potassium and lithium to magnesium ratios. Good chemistry is important as it reduces your overall cost of production.
Recent geophysical surveys including T. M have been completed on 5 of 6 priority targets and data collected to date has been extremely encouraging. Lithium Chile has identified multiple high-priority brine target areas at its Atacama and Ollague lithium project areas.
These areas display the same geophysical characteristics as the lithium-rich aquifers at Salar de Atacama, home to the world's largest and highest-grade lithium brine producers. Spanning an area of 1, square miles, Salar de Atacama is the world's third largest salt flat behind Salinas Grandes in Argentina and El Salar de Uyuni in neighboring Bolivia.
Exploration drilling and resource definition drilling for these target areas are planned for Lithium Chile is led by an experienced team with strong Chilean connections. Cochrane's 36 years of investment industry experience have primarily been focused on the mining sector. He has spent over 25 years in Chile's mining industry and is well connected throughout the sector. Walker is co-founder of GeoServicios Piedra Dorada, an exploration and development services company focused on Latin America.
Lithium Chile is well funded and driven by a top-tier team with more than years of combined experience in financing, mining exploration and development in the natural resources sector. Marijuana Company of America Inc. The founders of Marijuana Company of America, Inc. They have experienced the shift of legislation first hand, not only for the legalization of marijuana but also the emerging hemp-based CBD products.
The industrial hemp plant can be used to produce products that are carbon neutral or even carbon negative. It is one of the longest, strongest natural fibers on earth, used as a building material that is free of mold, pesticide-resistant, and fire proof.
Hemp has also been described as a "super food," which provides additional business opportunities. No part of the plant is left unused and the Company's overall strategy is to take advantage of every profit center from farm to the multiple valuable finished products. The cannabis and hemp industries are experiencing unprecedented growth that is expected to continue for many years as these industries are now accepted globally and continue to mature and expand.
The company offers investors the opportunity to be on the forefront of cannabis and hemp innovation through cultivation, processing in the legal cannabis and industrial hemp sectors. The Company's business model includes producing a diverse portfolio of synergistic business segments that provide value to its shareholders. Its vertically integrated business model and distribution platforms are positioned to capture market share by developing recognizable and valuable brands.
Through hempSMART, MCOA's strategic approach to the distribution of products is through a networking architecture geared to maintain customer loyalty and capture market share. The patent-pending product "hempSMART Brain," is designed to revolutionize the safe and effective support of healthy brain function. M1N , headquartered in Canada, is a junior exploration company assembling and acquiring mineral assets worldwide with a view to becoming a pure-play, low-cost supplier of manganese to the agricultural, industrial and green technology markets.
Maxtech has assembled several high-grade manganese assets that it intends to develop with its established partners on the ground in strategic global regions. Manganese is a diverse battery metal increasingly in high demand as an irreplaceable mainstay of steel production, an essential element of fertilizer in the agricultural sector, and as a vital resource in renewable battery technology. Maxtech Ventures is positioning itself to become a force in the green energy revolution where manganese is a critical element used in rechargeable batteries that power cars, hybrid vehicles, power tools and home appliances.
LMD batteries, which typically use a 61 percent manganese in its mix and 4 percent lithium, are currently used in the Chevrolet Volt, Nissan Leaf, Hyundai Sonata and some Tesla-produced products. LMD batteries have numerous benefits including higher power output, thermal stability and improved safety compared to regular lithium-ion batteries. There are only a handful of junior pure play manganese explorers.
This is an advantage Maxtech is looking to capitalize on as it expands its claims and strategic relationships in more mining jurisdictions," said Maxtech Ventures CEO Peter Wilson.
This 40,plus hectare land package has assayed high-grade manganese results of Maxtech is also currently preparing applications for licenses to explore potential high-grade manganese deposits in Zambia.
The company will work closely with partner GeoQuest in its mandate to identify, joint-venture and acquire assets with high-grade manganese mineralization. GeoQuest is led and managed by Julian D. Maxtech's long-term strategy is to build an international industrial minerals company to produce and sell manganese ore and processed manganese into the global markets of Europe, North America and Asia. Maxtech Ventures has assembled a group of veterans in mining and exploration, acquisitions and field management to guide the development of its mineral interests.
As an experienced corporate executive, Wilson has extensive relationships in project acquisition, corporate structure and finance specializing in, but not limited to, the global resource sector. John Harper, consulting geologist, is an international mineral exploration geoscientist and consultant with over 30 years of industry experience in base and precious metals, manganese, uranium and diamond exploration.
His international experience has taken him to projects in Africa and Brazil where he managed comprehensive programs for Cancana's manganese claims. Medical Cannabis Payment Solutions REFG , headquartered in Cheyenne, Wyoming, is a first-tier merchant processing cannabis industry pioneer, offering one of the first and only comprehensive card processing operations of its kind to serve the state-sanctioned medical marijuana industry.
The company's state of the art system, which also tracks sales and tax collection, and eliminates the need to deal in cash-only transactions. Through its robust, closed-loop merchant processing system, the company's unique "StateSourced" proprietary system enables authorized operation under FinCEN parameters and complies with all regulatory frameworks.
StateSourced is tailored to deliver full-spectrum merchant processing services, providing the convenience of modern commercial card processing resources and making it the first operation of its kind geared to the legal cannabis industry. StateSourced is not a prepaid or gift card, which is an important variable for merchants since standard banking institutions have not offered this form of payment processing to the legal cannabis industry.
Federal law still considers marijuana illegal under the Controlled Substances Act, although 29 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the plant either for medicinal or recreational uses or both. This restriction has kept financial institutions at bay since most banks are federally insured and haven't been inclined to venture into the nascent industry. Medical Cannabis Payment Solutions is able to offer its StateSourced card on a state-by-state basis where the card can be used in purchasing product from a legal, authorized vendor, providing a much-needed option for consumers and businesses alike.
This collaboration will allow state-licensed marijuana establishments across the nation to accept both StateSourced debit cards and cryptocurrencies such as WeedCoin and Bitcoin. Medical Cannabis Payment Solutions president and CEO Jeremy Roberts and his executive team are working with state lawmakers to introduce legislation in an effort to address the growing problems in banking for the medical cannabis industry.
For companies in the emerging legal cannabis industry, where retail and non-retail transactions such as vendor payments and payroll are almost exclusively paid for with cash, the solutions offered by StateSourced can help businesses avoid the inherent risks associated with a cash-intensive sector.
Medical Cannabis Payment Solutions has also signed its first StateSourced contract with a Las Vegas-based vertically integrated marijuana establishment. We anticipate having many more, similar releases. Medical Cannabis Payment Solutions provides end-to-end management across multiple systems for medicinal marijuana operations. The company solves the fragmentation problem experienced by many of these rapidly growing companies by identifying tools that are important to dispensaries and customizing those tools to meet the specific needs of this unique industry.
NETE is a global financial technology and value-added solutions group that supports electronic payments acceptance in an omni-channel environment spanning across point-of-sale, e-commerce, and mobile devices.
Net Element operates a payments-as-a-service transactional model and value-added services platform for small to medium enterprises in the U. Internationally, Net Element's strategy is to leverage its omni-channel platform to deliver flexible offerings to emerging markets with diverse banking, regulatory and demographic conditions. Net Element believes the future of global commerce is being revolutionized as consumers quickly migrate toward omni-channel shopping utilizing mobile devices, desktop, and online services.
Net Element's all-in-one payment solutions support and unify a whole range of applications through a single, robust platform, allowing global onboarding and support for multiple payment methods.
In a partnership with Bunker Capital, Net Element has also launched a new blockchain-focused business unit that will develop and deploy blockchain technology-based solutions. Net Element expects the new division to create a decentralized crypto-based ecosystem that will act as a framework for an unlimited number of value-added services, connecting merchants and consumers in a seamless, economically efficient transaction.
This new business unit intends to also identify and invest in unique projects that decentralize and disrupt the payment processing industry by combining blockchain technology and real-world applications with talented development teams, strong fundamentals and addressable markets large in size.
Net Element clients are treated to customized solutions that provide the flexibility needed to keep up with customers. Among the services offered are mobile payment apps that accept payments anywhere, anytime; cloud-based solutions built to increase productivity and enhance revenue for clients and partners; marketing solutions that turn lookers into buyers; and business analytics that make it easy for clients to monitor business metrics, engage with customers and compare the competition.
Its multi-channel platform combines e-commerce, offline, point-of-sale, comprehensive back office tools, mobile point-of-sale, credit scoring and customer interaction in one powerful platform-as-a-service technology. Net Element is ranked No. Net Element grew percent. The company's chief executive officer, Oleg Firer, credits the company's progression to organic growth in its North America Transactions Segment, specifically the success of its Unified Payments brand, which focuses on value-added payment acceptance solutions for small to medium enterprises in the United States.
Net Element's suite of application performing interfaces APIs and connectors power commerce for businesses of all sizes through multi-channel platforms, all-in-one digital solutions, and end-to-end encryption of cardholder data utilizing tamper resistant hardware that ensures integrity and simplifies security.
Net Element's corporate team is led by director and CEO Oleg Firer, who is responsible for the overall vision, strategy and execution of the company's mission of powering global commerce. Each corporate officer brings a unique blend of leadership, vision, experience and creative energy to the company. From mobile payments and value-added transactional innovations such as Digital Provider and Aptito to e-commerce and retail payment transaction processing brands like Payonline and United Payments, Net Element is transforming the online and mobile experience.
NUGL is a search engine and online directory for the marijuana industry. NUGL's database includes listings for dispensaries, strains, doctors, lawyers, service professionals, vape shops, hydro stores and brands. The company focuses on leading the evolution in business relations, development and organic data in the cannabis industry with metasearch technology. Thinklogic is a top-level software development company specializing in projects for start-ups to Fortune companies. NUGL is nearing completion of its initial launch timeline, with plans to launch the app on both Android and iOS platforms within the next few weeks.
NUGL's live testing of its software includes enhanced reviews that detail up to 10 category ratings. Each of the category rankings allow users to leave comments and choose among a 5-star rating among all categories or as few as they wish. The software's rating platform allows for customization and transparency for users while providing invaluable feedback to shops and professional services.
We want the users to know what they are getting before they step into a store or sign up for a service. NUGL is growing its team of developers and launching new features on an ongoing basis. The company is ahead of an impressive timeline, which includes building blocks for scalability and massive growth.
We have gotten in on the ground level and know the pulse of the industry. With over 10 years' experience in the cannabis space, he has worked on dispensary, cultivation and infusion entity formation, licensing, real estate acquisitions, construction and build out, marketing, policy and procedures, compliance, staffing, and capital raises. Vargas has an extensive background working with various medical marijuana companies on investment and in developing greenhouse and commercial cultivation, distillate for vapes cartridges, CBD oils and infusions.
He has expertly positioned and branded many companies while bringing them to market and is a sought out graphic artist, front-end developer, photographer, and visual artist with experience in the entertainment and technology industry. Jeff Odle, NUGL CTO, is a successful senior software architect has a long and distinguished career developing some of the most innovative, cutting-edge platforms available.
His unique and distinctive approach to creating the blueprint for advanced programming is industry leading and unprecedented. Armstrong and his partner, Lawrence Hortwitz, have more than 10 years of experience in the cannabis space, representing cannabis professionals in all aspects of business including business formation, licensing, compliance with local and state regulations, real estate acquisitions, corporate mergers and acquisitions, financing, inclusive of capital raises and alternative financing, contracts, and all forms of dispute resolution.
Board member Hendrik Klein, founder of Da Vinci Asset Management, a privately-owned investment firm, serves as CEO and executive board member of Fritz Nols AG, a capital marketing consulting firm specializing in trading and asset management. Klein and the Da Vinci team employ the latest quantitative data research and analysis in their innovative investment strategy.
PVOTF , based in Vancouver, Canada, is an emerging biopharmaceutical company engaged in the development and commercialization of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals that provide novel treatments for unmet healthcare needs.
Research into the bioavailability of cannabinoid-based therapeutics shows that rates of absorption vary greatly between smoking cannabis to an orally-consumed product, with a difference noted even between individuals. Cannabinoids are degraded in the stomach and smoking may not appeal to patients for health or lifestyle reasons.
Topical delivery, while a better alternative, has suffered from weak formulation issues. Transdermal cannabinoid delivery, on the other hand, could provide a better alternative route since it reduces side effects and bypasses other absorption issues.
In addition, transdermal delivery provides the benefit of enabling patients to access a steady stream of medication over a prolonged period with fewer side effects. This marketing method ensures a shorter development cycle and faster revenue generation opportunities. The growing number of states and countries gaining approval for using cannabis in therapeutic applications is expected to continue driving the market forward. Pivot Pharmaceuticals has assembled a highly experienced management team, bringing together a wealth of clinical, commercial, product development and financial experience.
Among the many healthcare targets in Pivot's pipeline are cancer supportive care, pain and inflammation, women's sexual dysfunction, dermatology and eye disease. PBIO develops, markets and sells proprietary laboratory instrumentation and associated consumables to the life sciences sample preparation market. Sample preparation refers to the wide range of activities that precede most forms of scientific analysis.
It is often complex and time-consuming, yet a critical part of scientific research. The Company's product line can be used to exquisitely control the sample preparation process. It is based on a patented, enabling technology platform called pressure cycling technology "PCT". PCT uses alternating cycles of hydrostatic pressure between ambient Due to its unique capabilities, the Barocycler EXT has become a critical part of our program.
It is the primary enabler of the high-throughput component of the project. Without this step, our project simply could not be done. In fact, the Barocycler EXT works so well we have just purchased two more.
Momentum is building when it comes to the potential for using the Company's unique PCT technology platform. Leading scientists are intrigued by Pressure BioSciences' approach, which among other attributes, revolutionizes the process of rupturing cells lysis for further study, yielding superior biomolecules for investigation.
The Company's technology transcends current methods of breaking open cells, which use chemicals, blades, metal beads, or other damaging and altering methods that can ultimately adversely affect the result for researchers. Using this pioneering method, the result is a truer, more legitimate sample, which boosts the efficacy of research and the quality of results.
The potential impact of this technology on scientific advancement is enormous, enabling research scientists to begin their studies with biological samples of unprecedented integrity, with the potential to improve research outcomes at the earliest, most critical step. PCT can additionally inactivate pathogens e. The Company's high-pressure instruments for research purposes are marketed throughout the United States, Europe, China and Japan.
To date, Pressure BioSciences has installed nearly PCT Systems in over leading academic, government, biotech and pharma laboratories around the world. Its primary applications are in biomarker discovery, forensics, agriculture and pathology. Over scientific papers have been published on the advantages of the PCT platform, which is also being used in the specialized fields of drug discovery and design, bio-therapeutics characterization, soil and plant biology, vaccine development and histology.
Impressive as their biotech business is, there is more to the PBI story. Pressure BioSciences recently received two patents in China for its novel Ultra Shear Technology UST , a process that has potential in a wide range of industrial applications, including extending the shelf life of some food products and making two insoluble liquids like oil in water soluble.
Patents have also been filed in many other countries worldwide. UST is a novel technique based on the use of intense shear forces generated from ultra-high-pressure valve discharge. This important technology has the potential to play a significant role in a number of commercially important areas through its ability to create high-quality, stable nanoemulsions.
Researchers looking for a way to increase the bioavailability of cannabinoids in the body will find this technology a game changer. The Company's UST technology also has possibilities in the production of clean label foods, which are currently processed using several innovative methods, including high-pressure treatments such as Starbucks' Evolution line of juices.
In , the worldwide market for high-pressure processed HPP food was estimated at U. UST uses ultra-high pressures and certain valves to generate intense shear forces under controlled temperature conditions to produce nanoemulsions, and which also significantly reduces food-borne pathogens.
Pressure BioSciences' initial focus with this technology will be to evaluate UST for the production of high-quality dairy products and beverages. The company is strategically staking out select positions in the medically acute areas of diabetes and obesity, pain management, neurological disorders and cancer.
The duo created Cornerstone Global Partners, a venture capital and business development company, and became involved in numerous ventures including building companies such as Aurora Cannabis Inc. Taking their interest in the health and wellness market further, the pair began researching how nature and science can work together to benefit health-conscious consumers.
The company's first product was developed in the Dominican Republic and is now marketed and distributed worldwide by PreveCeutical. This product is an oral dilute solution infused with select peptides sourced exclusively from the blue scorpion Rhopalurus princeps found only in Caribbean nations.
The active potentiated ingredients in CELLB9, which have been used in over 40 countries for over a decade, appear to support health at a deep, cellular level. Peptides are also being used to target an array of disease indications including metabolic disorders, pain management, cancers, cardiovascular and infectious diseases.
PreveCeutical is developing the first nose-to-brain delivery system of cannabinoids CBDs with a novel process that prepares insoluble drug-containing nano-micelles and successfully incorporating them into a proprietary sol-gels application, essentially creating a targeted drug delivery vehicle. Intended for use via a nasal spray, this unique formulation rapidly gels upon contact with mucosal tissue, which paves the way for direct nose-to-brain delivery.
This novel application eliminates first pass metabolism stomach, intestines, liver , potentially improving bioavailability and delivering extended time release formulations that may alleviate side effects of higher dosage therapeutics.
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