Find information about preventing diabetes complications from the Cleveland The focus of treatment of high cholesterol in patients with diabetes is to lower the . What you can do to prevent the other health problems that high How to Lower Your Risk It's the best way to avoid diabetes complications. Careful diabetes care can reduce your risk of serious — even life-threatening — complications. Here are 10 ways to take an active role in.
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From having a hypo when your sugars are too low, to long-term lasting damage to your eye sight , diabetes can do serious harm. And there are lots of different types of diabetes complications. But did you know that you can prevent or delay lots of these problems?
Keeping blood sugar , blood pressure and blood fats under control will hugely help to reduce your risk of developing complications.
This means going to your diabetes health checks and knowing how to look after yourself between appointments. You might hear your healthcare team talk about two types of diabetes complications — chronic and acute. Chronic complications are long-term problems that can develop gradually, and can lead to serious damage if they go unchecked. Acute complications can happen at any time, and they can lead to other complications too.
High sugar levels in your blood over a long period of time can seriously damage your blood vessels. The longer the duration of diabetes, the greater the risk of diabetic retinopathy. The most important treatable risk factors are hyperglycaemia and hypertension. Otherwise, diabetic retinopathy progresses silently until visual loss occurs. Retinopathy is treated with laser photocoagulation, which usually prevents further loss but generally does not restore vision. For proliferative and severe non-proliferative retin-opathy, pan-retinal laser photocoagulation is used.
The greatest benefit is in patients with high-risk changes new vessels on the optic disc or vitreous haemorrhage. Clinically significant macular oedema is treated with focal laser photocoagulation therapy. For both diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, the benefit of good glycaemic control appears to be greatest in the early stages.
It has not been so clearly demonstrated that glycaemic control delays the progression of overt nephropathy, and intensified glucose control may temporarily exacerbate proliferative retinopathy. Treatment of hypertension reduces the development and progression of microvascular complications in diabetes.
Most of the supporting evidence comes from trials of the effects of inhibitors of the renin—angiotensin system on diabetic nephropathy. Drugs inhibiting this system, such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists, generally have a greater benefit than other classes of anti-hypertensive drugs. Small trials suggest that the combination of an ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonist may have an additional renoprotective effect.
The presence of diabetes should prompt aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension and dyslipidaemia, to prevent macrovascular disease, as intensive management of these risk factors is of greater benefit for people with diabetes than for those without diabetes.
ACE inhibitors and low-dose aspirin are indicated in people with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors see case report, Box 5. Benefit and ease of modifying risk factors for macrovascular and microvascular disease. Benefit marginal in randomised controlled trials, 3 except with metformin in overweight people Ask about symptoms nausea and vomiting, nocturnal diarrhoea, postural hypotension, erectile dysfunction.
False positive results occur with recent exercise, urinary tract infection, fever, marked hypertension, marked hyperglycaemia, congestive cardiac failure and haematuria. She had attended an education program covering diet, exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose and foot care. She did not smoke. With a diet and exercise plan, her HbA 1c level was maintained in the range 6.
Body mass index of Eye examination showed a few microaneurysms. Her serum creatinine level was 0. She had no signs of peripheral neuropathy. She was encouraged to walk for half an hour at least every second day and to take increased care with her diet. A repeat urine test confirmed microalbuminuria. As she was overweight and had normal renal function, metformin was the most appropriate initial treatment.
Several weeks later, her blood glucose levels had greatly improved, and she had not developed the side effects of nausea, bloating or diarrhoea. She had periodic monitoring of her urea and electrolyte levels. Serum creatinine level remained unchanged, and she did not develop hyperkalaemia. A thiazide diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide She was warned to report myalgia, which may be a side effect. Publication of your online response is subject to the Medical Journal of Australia 's editorial discretion.
You will be notified by email within five working days should your response be accepted. Basic Search Advanced search search. Use the Advanced search for more specific terms. Volume Issue 9. Preventing complications of diabetes. Katherine L Bate and George Jerums. Med J Aust ; 9: Topics Endocrine system diseases. Abstract Diabetes complications are common and almost triple the annual cost of managing diabetes. Macrovascular complications Large-vessel disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke, is the greatest overall cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes.
Pathogenesis Hyperglycaemia promotes the reaction of glucose with components of the arterial wall to form advanced glycation products. Preventing macrovascular complications Finding strategies to reduce the development of macrovascular complications has been challenging. Aspirin Low-dose aspirin therapy is recommended for all people with diabetes and another risk factor, such as hypertension.
Multifactorial approach A recent Danish study found that macrovascular complications in patients at high risk can be reduced through a multifactorial approach involving behaviour modification and pharmacological therapy targeting hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and microalbuminuria, plus low-dose aspirin.
3: Preventing complications of diabetes
Breaking down diabetes: How to prevent complications so it's logical that medications to lower blood sugar are central to managing diabetes. The key to preventing many of these type 2 diabetes complications is to Heart Health Guidelines May Reduce Diabetes Risk by 80 Percent. When type 1 diabetes isn't controlled, complications can affect nearly every part of your body. Learn how to manage the condition and reduce your risk.