Supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) using CO2 can be used in a variety of industries, such Check out Engineering Peer Review (EPR) certifications of Apeks. Original Equipment Manufacturer: Apeks Supercritical This Engineering Peer Review was prepared for: Checked by: xLD Subcritical/Supercritical CO2 system (manual) Colorado, providing all pressure relief valves are vented to exhaust piping. .. The purpose of an EPR is to add value and reduce. The attached Engineering Peer Review for multiple models of the Apeks Supercritical CO2 This Certification Sheet is applicable only to Apeks Supercritical Oregon, providing all pressure relief valves are vented to exhaust piping. The Checked by: XLD Subcritical/Supercritical CO2 system (manual).
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These case studies also show that such research can take a considerable amount of time, and that the incorporation of research results into regulatory practice can take even longer. The need for sustained effort and appropriate lead time is an important consideration in the development of a PRA research program aimed at helping the agency address key sources of risk for current and potential future facilities.
Dosimetry comparison of pelvimetry methods using conventional radiographs and CT. To determine the fetal and maternal exposure to radiation by use of thermoluminescent dosimeters in order to compare conventional and CT-scan X-ray.
Dosimetry was performed with an anthropomorph phantom. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were positioned on the surface and in the depth of the phantom. Digital radiography of the pelvis was performed according to a standard technique. CT-scan of the pelvis was performed according to the Buthiau's technique. With CT, the dose reached 0. With standard technique, the doses reached 0. A review on mathematical methods of conventional and Islamic derivatives.
Despite the impressive growth of risk management tools in financial institutions, Islamic finance remains miles away behind the conventional institutions. Islamic finance products need to comply with the syariah law and prohibitions, therefore they can use fewer of the available risk management tools compared to conventional.
Derivatives have proven to be the effective hedging technique and instrument that broadly being used in the conventional institutions to manage their risks. However, derivatives are not generally accepted as the legitimate products in Islamic finance and they remain controversial issues among the Islamic scholars. This paper reviews the evolution of derivatives such as forwards, futures and options and then explores the mathematical models that being used to solve derivatives such as random walk model, asset pricing model that follows Brownian motion and Black-Scholes model.
Other than that, this paper also critically discuss the perspective of derivatives from Islamic point of view. In conclusion, this paper delivers the traditional Islamic products such as salam, urbun and istijrar that can be used to create building blocks of Islamic derivatives. Comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods. Part I contains a comprehensive treatment of the comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods.
The conventional methods chosen for comparison were: Briefly, the overall result from this comparative study is in favor of the use of geostatistics in most cases because the method has lived up to its theoretical claims. A good exposition on the theory of geostatistics, the adopted study procedures, conclusions and recommended future research are given in Part I. Part II of this report contains the results of the second and the third study objectives, which are to assess the potential benefits that can be derived by the introduction of the geostatistical method to the current state-of-the-art in uranium reserve estimation method and to be instrumental in generating the acceptance of the new method by practitioners through illustrative examples, assuming its superiority and practicality.
These are given in the form of illustrative examples on the use of geostatistics and the accompanying computer program user's guide. In Finland, a plant specific, Level 1 and 2 Probabilistic Risk Analysis PRA is required as a prerequisite for issuing the construction license and operating license. The use of PRA in various applications and the main insights are presented. These applications include e. PRA support to the design of SSCs Systems, Structures and Components , definition of pre-service and in-service inspection programs, evaluation of the safety classification of SSCs, development of procedures, training and in definition of risk informed technical specifications, periodic testing and on-line preventive maintenance programs.
In addition, PRA shall be used to assess the adequacy and coverage of the phase and system commissioning programs. Also the potential risks related to commissioning tests during nuclear test phase, shall be assessed with the help of PRA. In OL3 project, risk informed approach has been applied on a large scale for the first time in the design, construction and commissioning of a new NPP unit.
Pre-nuclear commissioning tests have started at OL3 site and the plant is foreseen to begin commercial operation in Decisions have been made to launch new NPP projects. Teollisuuden Voima Oyj TVO is planning to build a new unit OL4 at Olkiluoto site and a new utility, Fennovoima, is planning to build one unit at one of two alternative green field sites in Northern parts of Finland. Insights from PRAs of operating NPPs have been used in the evaluation of possible new sites to ensure that the site specific concerns and environmental conditions are adequately taken into account in the design of SSCs.
Although the seismic activity at the Olkiluoto site is low, a comprehensive seismic risk analysis is being conducted. Its results support the review of the deterministic seismic design. For new sites, a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for the determination of the design earthquake. Experiences from OL3 licensing have been utilized in the. GOES-R is the next generation weather satellite primarily to help understand the weather and help save human lives.
PRA was initially adopted and implemented in the operational phase of manned space flight programs and more recently for the next generation human space systems. Since its first use at NASA, PRA has become recognized throughout the Agency as a method of assessing complex mission risks as part of an overall approach to assuring safety and mission success throughout project lifecycles. PRA is now included as a requirement during the design phase of both NASA next generation manned space vehicles as well as for high priority robotic missions.
It also represents a pioneering effort to integrate risks from both Spacecraft SC and Ground Segment GS to fully assess the probability of achieving mission objectives. PRA analysts were actively involved in system engineering and design engineering to ensure that a comprehensive set of technical risks were correctly identified and properly understood from a design and operations perspective.
The analysis included an assessment of SC hardware and software, SC fault management system, GS hardware and software, common cause failures, human error, natural hazards, solar weather and infrastructure such as network and telecommunications failures, fire. PRA findings directly resulted in design changes to reduce SC risk from micro-meteoroids. PRA results also led to design changes in several SC subsystems, e.
Conventional and more recent methods of radiodiagnosis of mammary carcinoma. The methods are listed and briefly characterized. They are categorized by energy used and for some, future applications are given. X-ray methods are believed to be the most frequently used and deemed to remain so.
Necessity for Model Shaking. Probabilistic risk assessment PRA is increasingly used as a technique to help ensure design and operational safety of nuclear power plants NPPs in the nuclear industry. Hence, there is considerable interest in the PRA quality, and as a result, a peer review of the PRA model is typically performed to ensure its technical adequacy as part of the PRA development process or for any other reason e.
For the PRA model to be used as a valuable vehicle for risk-informed applications, it is essential that the PRA model must yield correct and physically meaningful accident sequences and minimal cutsets for specific plant configurations or conditions relating to the applications. Hence, the existing peer review guidelines need to be updated to reflect these insights so that risk-informed applications could be more actively pursued with confidence.
Full Text Available Probabilistic risk assessment PRA has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Has PRA delivered on its promise? How do we gage PRA performance? Are our expectations about value of PRA realistic? Are there disparities between what we get and what we think we are getting form PRA and its various derivatives?
Do current PRAs reflect the knowledge gained from actual events? How do we address potential gaps? These are some of the questions that have been raised over the years since the inception of the field more than forty years ago. This paper offers a brief assessment of PRA as a technical discipline in theory and practice, its key strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions on ways to address real and perceived shortcomings. Probabilistic risk assessment PRA has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements.
Tomographs based on non- conventional radiation sources and methods. Computer techniques for tomographic reconstruction of objects X-rayed with a compact plasma focus PF are presented. The implemented reconstruction algorithms are based on stochastic searching of solutions of Radon equation, using Genetic Algorithms and Monte Carlo methods. Numerical experiments using actual projections were performed concluding the feasibility of the application of both methods in tomographic reconstruction problem.
Inspector activities are either scheduled or are in response to a particular status of a plant. Acute renal failure could activate the RAAS function. Since the occurrence of nuclear power plant accidents in the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power station, the regulatory framework on severe accident SA has been discussed in Japan.
Initiating events with large contribution to core damage frequency are the loss of all AC powers station blackout and the large LOCA. The top of dominant accident sequences is the simultaneous occurrence of station blackout and large LOCA. Important components to core damage frequency are electric power supply equipment. It needs to keep in mind that the results are influenced on site geologic characteristic to a greater or lesser. In the process of analysis, issues such as conservative assumptions related to damages of building or structure and success criteria for excessive LOCA are left to be resolved.
These issues will be further studied including thermal hydric analysis in the future. Conventional estimating method of earthquake response of mechanical appendage system. Generally, for the estimation of the earthquake response of appendage structure system installed in main structure system, the method of floor response analysis using the response spectra at the point of installing the appendage system has been used.
On the other hand, the research on the estimation of the earthquake response of appendage system by the statistical procedure based on probability process theory has been reported. The development of a practical method for simply estimating the response is an important subject in aseismatic engineering. In this study, the method of estimating the earthquake response of appendage system in the general case that the natural frequencies of both structure systems were different was investigated.
First, it was shown that floor response amplification factor was able to be estimated simply by giving the ratio of the natural frequencies of both structure systems, and its statistical property was clarified. Next, it was elucidated that the procedure of expressing acceleration, velocity and displacement responses with tri-axial response spectra simultaneously was able to be applied to the expression of FRAF. The applicability of this procedure to nonlinear system was examined.
Certification plan for safety and PRA codes. An action matrix, checklists, and a time schedule have been included in the plan. These items identify what is required to achieve certification of the codes.
A description of each of the codes was provided in Reference 4. The action matrix for the configuration control plan identifies code specific requirements that need to be met to achieve the certification plan's objectives. The checklist covers the specific procedures that are required to support the configuration control effort and supplement the software life cycle procedures based on QAP Reference 7. A qualification checklist for users establishes the minimum prerequisites and training for achieving levels of proficiency in using configuration controlled codes for critical parameter calculations.
The deformation of structural alloys presents problems for power plants and aerospace applications due to the demand for elevated temperatures for higher efficiencies and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The materials used in such applications experience harsh environments which may lead to deformation and failure of critical components. In recognising this issue, a detailed understanding of creep is essential for the success of these designs by ensuring components do not experience excessive deformation which may ultimately lead to failure.
To achieve this, a variety of parametric methods have been developed to quantify creep and creep fracture in high temperature applications. This study reviews a number of well-known traditionally employed creep lifing methods with some more recent approaches also included. The first section of this paper focuses on predicting the long-term creep rupture properties which is an area of interest for the power generation sector.
The second section looks at pre-defined strains and the re-production of full creep curves based on available data which is pertinent to the aerospace industry where components are replaced before failure. Full text of publication follows: The pressurized light water cooled, medium power MWt IRIS International Reactor Innovative and Secure has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in and the preliminary design is nearing completion.
The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, IRIS has been primarily focused on establishing a design with innovative safety characteristics. The first line of defense in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage.
In IRIS, this concept is implemented through the 'safety by design' approach, which allows to minimize the number and complexity of the safety systems and required operator actions.
The end result is a design with significantly reduced complexity and improved operability, and extensive plant simplifications to enhance construction. To support the optimization of the plant design and confirm the effectiveness of the safety by design approach in mitigating or eliminating events and thus providing a significant reduction in the probability of severe accidents, the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process.
This first assessment is a result of a PRA model including internal initiating events. During this assessment, several assumptions were necessary to complete the CDF evaluation. In particular Anticipated Transients Without Scram ATWS were not included in this initial assessment, because their contribution to core damage frequency was assumed. The PRA estimated the frequency of core damage accidents caused by operational occurrences during power operation of the reactor.
The document had the purpose of informing the DOE system engineers and site representatives about how the information in the PRA might be used to help guide their activities.
Opportunities existed to develop a document somewhat different than those developed previously by other programs. The opportunities existed because the audience is different: How do you use PRA to support an operating program? It will discuss the importance of providing management with a clear presentation of the analysis, applicable assumptions and limitations, along with estimates of the uncertainty.
This presentation will show how the use of PRA by the Shuttle Program has evolved overtime and how it has been used in the decision making process providing specific examples.
The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment PRA. Example of accident sequence analysis of tsunami PRA according to the standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for nuclear power plants. Industry group had been conducting analysis of Tsunami PRA for PWR based on the standard under the cooperation with electric utilities. This article introduced overview of the standard and examples of accident sequence analysis of Tsunami PRA studied by the industry group according to the standard.
The standard consisted of 1 investigation of NPP's composition, characteristics and site information, 2 selection of relevant components for Tsunami PRA and initiating events and identification of accident sequence, 3 evaluation of Tsunami hazards, 4 fragility evaluation of building and components and 5 evaluation of accident sequence. Based on the evaluation, countermeasures for further improvement of safety against Tsunami could be identified by the sensitivity analysis.
Top event prevention analysis: A deterministic use of PRA. This paper describes the application of Top Event Prevention Analysis. The analysis finds prevention sets which are combinations of basic events that can prevent the occurrence of a fault tree top event such as core damage. The problem analyzed in this application is that of choosing a subset of Motor-Operated Valves MOVs for testing under the Generic Letter program such that the desired level of safety is achieved while providing economic relief from the burden of testing all safety-related valves.
A brief summary of the method is given, and the process used to produce a core damage expression from Level 1 PRA models for a PWR is described.
The analysis provides an alternative to the use of importance measures for finding the important combination of events in a core damage expression. Design Consideration for the Crew Exploration Vehicle. Phased-mission based event trees and fault trees are used to model a lunar sortie mission of the CEV - involving the following phases: The analysis is based upon assumptions, preliminary system diagrams, and failure data that may involve large uncertainties or may lack formal validation.
Furthermore, some of the data used were based upon expert judgment or extrapolated from similar componentssystemsT. Lastly, the PRA model was used to determine changes in risk as the system configurations or key parameters are modified. This report provides a review of published probabilistic risk assessments PRAs , the associated methodology guidance documents, and the psychological literature to identify parameters important to seismic human reliability analysis HRA.
The HRA of human actions during and after a seismic event is an area subject to many uncertainties and involves significant analyst judgment.
The approach recommended by this report is based on seismic HRA methods and associated issues and concerns identified from the review of these referenced documents that represent the current state-of-the- art knowledge and acceptance in the seismic HRA field.
This study updates the post-core damage phenomena to be consistent with the most recent information and includes accident management activities that should be modeled in the Level 2 PRA.
This technical paper deals only with the incorporation of operator actions into the Level 2 PRA based on a comprehensive study of the Seabrook Station accident response procedures and guidance. The paper describes the process used to identify the key operator actions that can influence the Level 2 PRA results and the development of success criteria for these key operator actions.
An important benefit of this assessment was the identification of Seabrook specific accident management insights that can be fed back into the Seabrook Station accident management procedures and guidance or the training provided to plant personnel for these procedures and guidance. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children.
These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment. During the probabilistic risk assessment PRA for the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, a problem came up that could not be handled by most PRA computer codes. This problem deals with dependencies between sequential events in time.
Two similar scenarios that illustrate this problem are LOOP nonrecovery and sequential wearout failures with units of time. The purpose of this paper is twofold: Full Text Available Conventional construction methods are still widely practised, although many researches have indicated that this method is less effective compared to the IBS construction method.
The existence of the IBS has added to the many techniques within the construction industry. This study is aimed at making comparisons between the two construction approaches.
Case studies were conducted at four sites in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Two projects were IBS-based while the remaining two deployed the conventional method of construction.
Based on an analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the IBS approach has more to offer compared to the conventional method. Among these advantages are shorter construction periods, reduced overall costs, less labour needs, better site conditions and the production of higher quality components. The radioprotective effect of a new aminothiol PRA. We examined the radioprotective effect of aminothiol 2-N-propylamine-cyclohexane thiol PRA on a human leukemic cell line K following various radiation doses 5,7.
In addition, the anti tumorigenic potential of 10 nM PRA was shown by the inhibition of crown gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
The radioprotective potency of PRA is 10 5- 10 6 times higher than that of the aminothiol WR N 2-mercaptoethyl -1,3-diamino propane whose protective effect is in the 0. Full Text Available We examined the radioprotective effect of aminothiol 2-N-propylamine-cyclo-hexanethiol PRA on a human leukemic cell line K following various radiation doses 5, 7.
In addition, the antitumorigenic potential of 10 nM PRA was shown by the inhibition of crown gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The radioprotective potency of PRA is times higher than that of the aminothiol WR N- 2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane whose protective effect is in the 0. Applications of PRA in nuclear criticality safety. Traditionally, criticality accident prevention at Los Alamos has been based on a thorough review and understanding of proposed operations of changes to operations, involving both process supervision and criticality safety staff.
The outcome of this communication was usually an agreement, based on professional judgement, that certain accident sequences were credible and had to be reduced in likelihood either by administrative controls or by equipment design and others were not credible, and thus did not warrant expenditures to further reduce their likelihood. The extent of analysis and documentation was generally in proportion to the complexity of the operation but did not include quantified risk assessments.
During the last three years nuclear criticality safety related Probabilistic Risk Assessments PRAs have been preformed on operations in two Los Alamos facilities.
Based on these two applications and an appreciation of the historical criticality accident record frequency and consequences it is apparent that quantified risk assessments should be performed very selectively. Two decades of PRA: The goal of this study was to assess the risk to the public posed by the nuclear power plants operating in the US. Some three and one-half years later in October , the study group issued its final report titled The Reactor Safety Study, also commonly known by its document number WASH Because it was issued at a time of heated public debate about nuclear safety, WASH received considerable critical review.
A number of utilities undertook such studies of their own plants. The field of probabilistic risk assessment PRA developed from these efforts. Among these are how to effectively communicate the results of the analysis. Just what does a probability of one in a million mean? Is there a de minimis probability - one so small that it can be ignored? How should society make decisions under substantial uncertainty?
A number of these questions pose real challenges for the future. The core damage frequency due to internal events, seismic events and typhoons are evaluated in this model.
The methodology and results considering the recent implementation of the 5th emergency diesel generator and automatic boron injection function are presented.
The dominant sequences of this PRA model are discussed, and some possible applications of this living model are proposed. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods for obtaining quadrant dental impressions. Digital impression systems provide the ability to take these impressions very quickly; however, few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo.
The aim of this study is to assess the precision of digital quadrant impressions in vivo in comparison to conventional impression techniques. Conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions: Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorption cavities and also to evaluate whether the detectability was influenced by resorption cavity sizes.
Thirty-two selected teeth from human dentate mandibles were radiographed in orthoradial, mesioradial and distoradial aspect using conventional film Insight Kodak F-speed; Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY and a digital sensor Trophy RVG advanced imaging system with 0. Three dental professionals, an endodontist, a radiologist and a general practitioner, evaluated the images twice with a one-week time interval.
No statistical significance was seen in the first observation for both conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions and for small and medium cavities but statistical difference was noted in the second observation P methods. Considering the methodology and the overall results, conventional radiographic method F-speed performed slightly better than the digital radiographic method in the detection of simulated radiographic method but better consistency was seen with the digital system.
Overall size of the resorption cavity had no influence on the performance of both methods and suggests that initial external root resorption lesion is not well-appreciated with both the methods as compared to the advanced lesion. Reliability and availability tracking. A living PRA allows updates and sensitivity analyses by the plant owner throughout the lifetime of a plant. Recently, event and fault trees from two major PRAs were placed in a computerized format.
The above concept is well established for the Nuclear Power Plant evaluation. It has been also used for evaluation of processing facilities. Presently both the tools and the experience exists to set up useful and viable living PRA models for nuclear and chemical processing plants to enhance risk management by the plant owners through in-house use of micro computer based models. Research on the typing of EH and the difference between the groups.
The clinical significance of computerized axial tomography CAT in consideration of conventional diagnostic methods. Regarding CAT of the extracranial region, the information available up to the meeting is reported on. Comparison between laser terahertz emission microscope and conventional methods for analysis of polycrystalline silicon solar cell.
Full Text Available A laser terahertz emission microscope LTEM can be used for noncontact inspection to detect the waveforms of photoinduced terahertz emissions from material devices. In this study, we experimentally compared the performance of LTEM with conventional analysis methods , e. The results showed that LTEM was more sensitive to the characteristics of the depletion layer of the polycrystalline solar cell compared with EL, PL, and LBIC and that it could be used as a complementary tool to the conventional analysis methods for a solar cell.
Comparison of the efficacy of conventional slow freezing and rapid cryopreservation methods for bovine embryos. Day 7 bovine morulae and early blastocysts were randomly assigned to one of four cryopreservation methods: A design method is presented that has been implemented in a software program to investigate the merits of conventional and unconventional transport airplanes.
Design and analysis methods are implemented in a design tool capable of creating a conceptual design based on a set of toplevel requirements. In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.
Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events. Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions.
To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach.
Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance PE based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method MED and linear prediction filter LPF method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. As a part of the PRA project, uncertainties of risk models and methods were systematically studied in order to describe them and to demonstrate their impact by way of results.
The uncertainty study was divided into two phases: The qualitative study contained identification of uncertainties and qualitative assessments of their importance.
The PRA was introduced, and identified assumptions and uncertainties behind the models were documented. The most significant uncertainties were selected by importance measures or other judgements for further quantitative studies.
The quantitative study included sensitivity studies and propagation of uncertainty ranges. In the sensitivity studies uncertain assumptions or parameters were varied in order to illustrate the sensitivity of the models. The propagation of the uncertainty ranges demonstrated the impact of the statistical uncertainties of the parameter values.
The Monte Carlo method was used as a propagation method. The most significant uncertainties were those involved in modelling human interactions, dependences and common cause failures CCFs , loss of coolant accident LOCA frequencies and pressure suppression. The qualitative mapping out of the uncertainty factors turned out to be useful in planning quantitative studies. It also served as internal review of the assumptions made in the PRA.
The sensitivity studies were perhaps the most advantageous part of the quantitative study because they allowed individual analyses of the significance of uncertainty sources identified. The uncertainty study was found reasonable in systematically and critically assessing uncertainties in a risk analysis. The usefulness of this study depends on the decision maker power company since uncertainty studies are primarily carried out to support decision making when uncertainties are.
To compute fire induced Core Melt probability, the results of hazard and propagation analyses were combined with the Core Melt frequency computed for the initiating event and the support state as determined by the fire considered. From the PRA for internal event, the average value of this frequency was found 2. Using the average fire frequency the resulting fire induced Core Melt frequency is 1. Although high separation of safety systems is required in Italian PWR plants, the frequency of fire induced Core Melt can reach values not negligible with respect to Italian safety standards.
For this reason, fire PRA studies for the entire plant are considered necessary and should be performed with appropriate modifications of the methods used for the American plants in order to be able to estimate lower fire induced Core Melt frequencies.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis and conventional method. Dry weight DW is an important concept related to patients undergoing hemodialysis.
Conventional method seems to be time consuming and operator dependent. Bio impedance analysis BIA is a new and simple method reported to be an accurate way for estimating DW.
This study involved uremic patients, performed in Isfahan, Iran. This process is observed as a thin surface crust made of rhombohedral calcite. Morphological features of aragonite vary from needle-, bouquet-, dumbbell-, spheroidal-like habitus according to the origin of carbon, temperature, and ionic composition of the hyperalkaline springs, and the biochemical and organic compounds. Brucite is observed both at hyperalkaline springs located at the thrust plane and at the paleo-Moho.
The varying mixing proportions between the surface runoff waters and the hyperalkaline ones control brucite precipitation. The layered double hydroxide minerals occur solely in the vicinity of hyperalkaline springs emerging within the bedded gabbros.
Finally, the dominant mineralogical associations we found in Oman Ca-bearing carbonates and brucite in a serpentinizing environment driven by the meteoric waters are surprisingly the same as those observed at the Lost City hydrothermal site in a totally marine environment.
Sequence data were obtained from the five fragments that showed identical genomic structure and phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared with previously published sequences.
Genuine subclade F1 sequences and any other sequences that exhibited unique mosaic structures were omitted from further analysis Results Of the 36 samples analyzed, only six sequences, inferred from the pol region as subclade F1, displayed BF1 identical mosaic genomes with a single intersubtype breakpoint identified at the nef-U3 overlap HXB2 position ; LTR region.
According to our estimate, the new CRF accounts for 0. Comparison with previously published sequences revealed an additional five isolates that share an identical mosaic structure with those reported in our study.
Despite sharing a similar recombinant structure, only one sequence appeared to. Experimental study of the hydrothermal alteration of a chemical analogue of the French nuclear glass in a thermal gradient: As the most dangerous radioactive wastes are to be stored in deep geological layers after having been packaged in barrels made of borosilicate glasses, this research report addresses the study of the alteration of such glasses through the study of a chemical analogue.
In order to experimentally model phenomena involved within a storage, the studied glass has been submitted to different thermal gradients between and C and during 3 to 5 months.
These gradients comply with those met about the parcels, and allows the spatial evolution of the waste parcel at a given moment, as well as the evolution in time progressive cooling of wastes to be simultaneously simulated.
The different phases formed within the gradient have been studied and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, semi-quantitative microanalysis, and X-ray micro-diffraction [fr. Extended Gamma-Ray Emission from the G The LAT source is located in the G25 region, 1. The extended sources have similar sizes of about 1. Given their spatial and spectral properties, they have no clear associations with sources at other wavelengths. Based on this scenario, we discuss possible acceleration processes in the SFR and compare them with the Cygnus cocoon.
Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction.
Uranium-polymetallic ore- forming system and mechanism of the black rock series in the southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate.
It is the indisputable fact that the large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization had happen in the southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate.
Obviously, the source of phophorite's ore- forming materials is closely related with the geological processes at depth. REE patterns are characterized by a low content in total and a gradually increasing with the increasing of REE atomic number, and the NASC-normalized value ranging between the upper and the lower limits of typical hydrothermal deposits.
The large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization was controlled by the environment of continental margin rifting. The authors propose that thermal sedimentation or exhalation-sedimentation is the mechanism of the large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization in the southeast continental margin of the Yangtze plate. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan " rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen- forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota.
A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan " rock posy" lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen- forming ascomycetes.
In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species.
Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic.
However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant.
Our study of the R. Oleh karena itu, informasi awal untuk mengantisipasi dampak tersebut, yaitu identifikasi batuan yang berpotensi asam dan memodelkan penyebarannya. Hasil dari penelitian mengindikasikan, bahwa dominasi PAF berada di lapisan batu lempung kemudian diikuti batu lanau dan batu pasir dengan penyebaran mengikuti struktur sinklin yang terbatas di lapisan bawah floor dan lapisan antara inter burden pada batubara. The results of the study indicate, that the dominance of PAF are in layers followed by siltstone, claystone and sandstone with the distribution of rock following the syncline structure in the bottom floor layer and in the inter-burden layer on coal.
Exsolution lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel occur in olivine of harzburgite of the Pauza ultramafic rocks , Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq. The lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel are distributed heterogeneously in the host olivine crystal.
They are depleted in Al2O3 relative to the subhedral spinel grains in the matrix and spinel lamella in orthopyroxene. Olivine Fo92 - 93 with spinel lamellae occurs as fine-grained crystals around orthopyroxene, whereas olivine Fo free from spinel is found in matrix.
As well as the compositions of chromian spinel lamellae host olivine are more Mg-rich than the matrix olivine. Furthermore the restriction of olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral inclusions on around orthopyroxene, and the similarity of spinel lamella orientations in both olivine and adjacent orthopyroxene.
Replacive olivine are formed by reaction of ascending silica poor melt and orthopyroxene in harzburgite as pressure decrease the solubility of silica-rich phase orthopyroxene in the system increase, therefore ascending melt dissolve pyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella and precipitate replacive olivine with spinel inclusions. There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered.
This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte upper half of image and a high slope lower half of image.
The rocks might be sedimentary rocks , similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Full Text Available The article presents results of petrophysical laboratory experiments in studies of decompression phenomena associated with consequences of abrupt displacements in fault zones.
Decompression was studied in cases of controlled pressure drop that caused sharp changes of porosity and permeability parameters, and impacts of such decompression were analyzed. Healing of fractured-porous medium by newly formed phases was studied. In nature, fracture healing is influenced by a variety of factors, such as size of discontinuities in rock masses, pressure and temperature conditions, pressure drop gradients, rock composition and saturation with fluid.
Impacts of such factors are reviewed. Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers Neuroendocrine tumors NETs are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors.
A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes.
Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery.
This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans reflect unmet needs and priorities in the field. Full Text Available Purpose: This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans.
Art Rocks with Rock Art! This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…. Basic rocks in Finland. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites.
Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.
During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1. Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data.
It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling VSP and analysis of core samples. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity such as the boogie woogie flu , the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome.
Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is Development of artificial soft rock. When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks , often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete.
As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed.
As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form , which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No.
Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden. A number of iron deposits near Kiruna in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden are of the iron oxide apatite IOA type of deposits; also referred to as Kiruna-type deposits.
They are commonly considered a subgroup or end-member of iron oxide copper gold IOCG deposits, containing no economic grades of copper or gold. Deposits of these types are of a great economic importance, not only for iron, but also for other elements such as rare earth elements REE or uranium.
Kiruna, the type locality of the IOA type of mineral deposits, is the focus of this study. Despite a century-long mining history and Mt of iron ore produced in the region to date with grades of 30 to 70 wt. The results anticipated from this study will provide a better understanding of the nature of the IOA type of mineral deposits and their relation to IOCG deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia. An array of geochemical methods is used in order to gain insights on the emplacement history of the host rocks , their subsequent alteration, and the ore genesis of these deposits.
Isotopic data from whole rocks and in situ at mineral scale will provide constraints on the involvement of hydrothermal fluids and their possible sources, as well as on the sources of Fe, U, and the REE.
Newly obtained Sm-Nd isotopic data points to distinct source differences between host rocks , ore and alteration related samples. Preliminary in situ U. Channelling of flow through fractures in rock. A method of mapping the channelling of flow in rock fractures formed by contacts between rock faces and of measuring the effective apertures of channels has been developed.
Some typical results are given. Practicing on Newly Dead. Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis.
This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure.
A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics.
As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients.
The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual.
The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars. The rock surfaces are strong, because they did not scratch, chip or spall when the sampler pushed them. Fresh surfaces of soil and the undersides of rocks were exposed so that they could be imaged in color. A ledge of soil adhered to one rock that tilted, showing that a crust forms near the surface of Mars.
The reason for low amounts of iron in the sampIes from under the rocks is not known at this time. Fluids in metamorphic rocks. Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping.
The calculated Total Organic Carbon TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock -Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area.
Eventually, kerogen type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Australian provenance for Upper Permian to Cretaceous rocks forming accretionary complexes on the New Zealand sector of the Gondwana land margin.
Their major Permian to Triassic, and minor Early Palaeozoic and Mesoproterozoic, age components indicate that most sediment was probably derived from the Carboniferous to Triassic New England Orogen in northeastern Australia.
This period of cordilleran-type orogeny allowed transport of large volumes of quartzo-feldspathic sediment across the convergent Gondwana land margin. Post-Triassic depocentres also received recycled?
The detailed provenance-age fingerprints provided by the detrital zircon data are also consistent with progressive southward derivation of sediment: Although the dextral sense of displacement is consistent with the tectonic regime during this period, detailed characterisation of source terranes at this scale is hindered by the scarcity of published zircon age data for igneous and sedimentary rocks in Queensland and northern New South Wales. Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic age components cannot be adequately matched with likely source terranes in the Australian-Antarctic Precambrian craton, and it is possible they originated in the Proterozoic cores of the Cathaysia and Yangtze Blocks of southeast China.
Copyright Geological Society of Australia. Released 19 April The Science 'White Rock ' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark.
Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater.
Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving.
These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can. The area of the North Bohemian Coal Basin is devastated by the extensive exploitation of brown coal by open pit mining.
Knowledge of newly formed soils, their properties, development and contamination is important from the point of view of biological regeneration of the landscape. The mineralogy of anthropogenic soils from the mining area is presented together with the geochemistry of nutrients and trace elements.
Attention is paid to the soil- forming processes in the non-reclaimed spoil rock banks with the development of spontaneous vegetation. Rock stresses Grimsel rock laboratory. On the research and development project ' Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements.
The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy.
Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology.
With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations. The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter.
Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push.
Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock , named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers.
Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.
Lead isotope analyses of standard rock samples. New results on lead isotope compositions of standard rock samples and their analytical procedures are reported. Bromide form anion exchange chromatography technique was adopted for the chemical separation lead from rock samples.
The lead contamination during whole analytical procedure was low enough to determine lead isotope composition of common natural rocks. Silica-gel activator method was applied for emission of lead ions in the mass spectrometer.
Using the data reduction of 'unfractionated ratios', we obtained good reproducibility, precision and accuracy on lead isotope compositions of NBS SRM. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments. The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss.
These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks , serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters.
Reproducing early Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure by modeling the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops on Mars.
The well defined composition of the Comanche rock 's carbonate Magnesite0. Hydrogeochemical one-dimensional transport modeling reveals that similar aqueous rock alteration conditions including CO2partial pressure may have led to the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops Gusev Crater and also in the ultramafic rocks exposed in the Nili Fossae region. Hydrogeochemical conditions enabling the formation of Mg-rich solid solution carbonate result from equilibrium species distributions involving 1 ultramafic rocks ca.
Our modeled carbonate composition Magnesite0. Their outcrop may represent a fragment of the upper layers of an altered olivine-rich rock column, which is characterized by newly formed Mg-Fe-Ca solid solution carbonate, and phyllosilicate-rich alteration assemblages within deeper unexposed units. Geomorphic impacts of a disastrous crevasse splay that formed in September and its post-formation modifications were quantitatively documented by using multitemporal, high-definition digital surface models DSMs of an inhabited and cultivated floodplain of the Kinu River, central Japan.
Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field".
Carbonate rock depositional models: Understanding how these rocks form can lead to more efficient methods of petroleum exploration. Micofacies analysis techniques can be used as a method of predicting models of sedimentation for carbonate rocks. Micofacies in carbonate rocks can be seen clearly only in thin sections under a microscope. This section analysis of carbonate rocks is a tool that can be used to understand depositional environments, diagenetic evolution of carbonate rocks , and the formation of porosity and permeability in carbonate rocks.
The use of micofacies analysis techniques is applied to understanding the origin and formation of carbonate ramps, carbonate platforms, and carbonate slopes and basins. This book will be of interest to students and professionals concerned with the disciplines of sedimentary petrology, sedimentology, petroleum geology, and palentology. Internal mobility of reactive-site-hydrolyzed recombinant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V characterized by NMR spectroscopy: The S2 values, 0.
Response of rocks to large stresses. To predict the dimensions and characteristics of impact- and explosion-induced craters, one must know the equation of state of the rocks in which the crater is formed.
We examine these data with a view to developing models that could be used in predicting cratering phenomena. New data is presented on the volume behavior of two dissimilar rocks subjected to tensile stresses. Supratidal talus-platforms are low-relief subaerial accumulations of debris produced by mass wasting along high coastal cliffs, being particularly abundant at reefless volcanic islands subjected to high wave energy.
On October 30, , a coastal landslide 0. This GIS-based study used aerial oblique photography and satellite optical imagery, complemented with a land survey for a more precise topographic reconstruction.
Analysis of data concerning bathymetry, precipitation, and wave regime was also employed to investigate the driving forces behind the morphodynamic evolution of the deposit. Geomorphic impacts of a disastrous crevasse splay that formed in September and its post-formation modifications were quantitatively documented by using repeated, high-definition digital surface models DSMs of an inhabited and cultivated floodplain of the Kinu River, central Japan.
The DSMs were based on pre-flood resolution: After elimination of systematic errors among the DSMs and down-sampling of the SfM-derived DSM, elevation changes on the order of m - including not only topography but also growth of vegetation, vanishing of flood waters, and restoration and repair works - were detected.
Comparison of the DSMs showed that the volume eroded by the flood was more than twice the deposited volume in the area within m of the breached artificial levee, where the topography was significantly affected. The results suggest that DSMs based on a combination of UAV-SfM and lidar data can be used to quantify, rapidly and in rich detail, topographic changes on floodplains caused by floods. The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock -crushing industries.
Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.
Hot dry rock heat mining. Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock HDR resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place.
The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted.
Second generation power plant designs, employing molten-salt and volumetric-air receivers , were assessed at the size of 30 and MWe. The study developed a common guideline and used data from previous system tests and studies. The levelized-energy costs for the second generation plants were estimated and found to be competitive with costs from fossil-fueled power plants. Potential for further cost reductions exists if technical improvements can be introduced successfully in the long term.
Additionally, the study presents results of plant reliability and uncertainty analyses. Mid- and long-term technical potentials are described, as well as recommendations for the R ampersand D activities needed to reach the goal of large-scale commercialization.
The results of this study have already helped direct research in the US and Europe. For example, the favorable potential for these technologies has led to the Solar Two molten-salt project in the US and the TSA volumetric receiver test in Spain.
In addition, early analysis conducted within this study indicated that an advanced thermal storage medium was necessary to achieve favorable economics for the air plant. This led to the design of the thermal storage system currently being tested in Spain.
Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants. An overview of a study to retrofit the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer SCRR operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production.
The SCRR system will displace natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Security aspect can be achieved by using cryptography algorithm, applying information hiding concept, and implementing security protocol. The solid collaboration between central legitimization agency CLA, central tabulating facility CTF, and client is the main idea in two central facilities protocol. The utilization of AES algorithm could defend the data on transmission from man in the middle attack scenario.
On the other hand, whitespace manipulation algorithm provided data integrity aspect of the document that is uploaded to the system itself. Both of the algorithm fulfill confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication.
Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility. It is also used to support custom RF testing up to Static Loads Test Facility. Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify Central receiver power plant: The technical details of the central receiver design are reviewed. Socio-economic questions are considered including: The ecological effects in the vicinity of the central receiver plant site are dealt with, with emphasis on effects on land surface, mammals, and reptiles and amphibians.
Climatological considerations are reviewed including: Drawings of heliostat and plant design are included in appendices. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.
If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.
Review and future perspective of central receiver design and performance. Concentrating solar power CSP technology provides a commercial solar option to the utility-scale electricity market. CSP is unique in its ability to include low-cost thermal storage; thus, it can generate electricity when the sun is not available and dispatch electricity to meet varying load requirements. Within the suite of CSP technologies, the central receiver design represents the state-of-the-art technology, promising low cost, high performance, and dispatchable energy production.
Current total capacity of central receiver plants worldwide is about 1. Central receiver technology has been under development since the s, and a variety of central receiver designs have been explored.
A distinguishing feature is the heat transfer medium. Central receiver designs exist that use dense fluids, gases, and solid particles in this role. Central receiver thermal storage provides dispatchability unavailable from variable-output renewables such as solar photovoltaic and wind power. Case study analysis of the California grid shows that there is a limit on the amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation that the grid can accommodate, beyond which.
Case study analysis of the California grid shows that there is a limit on the amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation that the grid can. Report on the symposium and workshop on the 5 MWt solar thermal test facility. Session topics include central receivers , solar collectors, solar energy storage, high temperature materials and chemistry. A program overview and individual contractor reports for the test facility project are included, along with reports on conference workshop sessions and users group recommendations.
A list of conference attendees is appended. Separate abstracts are prepared for 39 papers. Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current Configuration: Accommodate a device under test up to 2. Up to A test The Fermilab central computing facility architectural model.
The goal of the current Central Computing Upgrade at Fermilab is to create a computing environment that maximizes total productivity, particularly for high energy physics analysis. The Computing Department and the Next Computer Acquisition Committee decided upon a model which includes five components: With the exception of the file server, all segments of this model are currently in production: Implications for Code Management in such a heterogeneous environment, including issues such as modularity and centrality , will be considered.
Special emphasis will be placed on connectivity and communications between the front-end, LSSC, and workstations, as practiced at Fermilab. The Fermilab Central Computing Facility architectural model. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant. A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy.
The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.
The Integral Test Facility Karlstein. Integral system tests , including also the Passive Pressure Pulse Transmitter, will be performed to simulate transients and Loss of Coolant Accident scenarios at the test facility.
Component heights and levels are in full scale. As a result of the large power supply at the facility , INKA is capable of simulating various accident scenarios, including a full train of passive systems, starting with the initiating event—for example pipe rupture.
Airborne Test Bed Facility. The use of commercial ac circuit breakers for dc switching operations requires that they be evaluated to determine their dc limitations. In response to the increased demand on switching technology, a GVA facility has been constructed.
Novel features incorporated into this facility include 1 separate capacitive and cryogenic inductive energy storage systems, 2 fiber-optic controls and optically-coupled data links, and 3 digital data acquisition systems.
Facility details and planned tests on an experimental rod-array vacuum interrupter are presented. Outstanding among recent achievements is the work on plasma heating being undertaken on the Sprite facility using the ultra-bright KrF laser pumped Raman beams. Two-beam operation at power levels approaching 2 TW in 10 ps are hoped for. On a four year timescale the Titania system will provide four Raman beams of exceptional brightness and power up to 20TW in 10ps.
The other high power laser facility , Vulcan is also producing exciting work. Progress in nanosecond studies using Raman spectroscopy have produced the first Raman spectrum of solvated Buckmister fullerene and direct observation of the separation of germinate ion pairs, as well as information on the behaviour of a single base in an oligonuclide chain. Phase boundaries for the solidification of a two dimensional electron fluid have been determined in a Gallium Arsenide heterojunction.
Despite staff number attrition, operation and development of the facilities have continued successfully. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility.
It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop LLNL superconducting magnets test facility. The FENIX facility was used for superconducting high current, short sample tests for fusion programs in the late s--early s. The new facility includes a 4-m diameter vacuum vessel, two refrigerators, a 40 kA, 42 V computer controlled power supply, a new switchyard with a dump resistor, a new helium distribution valve box, several sets of power leads, data acquisition system and other auxiliary systems, which provide a lot of flexibility in testing of a wide variety of superconducting magnets in a wide range of parameters.
The detailed parameters and capabilities of this test facility and its systems are described in the paper. Freshwater Treatment and Test Facility.
Clair and has a State of Michigan approved National Simulation of the MRS receiving and handling facility. Monitored retrievable storage MRS will be required to handle a large volume of spent fuel or high-level waste HLW in case of delays in repository deployment. The quantities of materials to be received and repackaged for storage far exceed the requirements of existing waste mangement facilities. A computer simulation model of the MRS receiving and handling R and H fcility has been constructed and used to evaluate design alternatives.
Studies have identified processes or activities which may constrain throughput performance. In addition, the model has helped to assess design tradeoffs such as those to be made among improved process times, redundant service lines, and improved component availability. Mirror fusion test facility. It represents a scaleup, by a factor of 50 in plasma volume, a factor of 5 or more in ion energy, and a factor of 4 in magnetic field intensity over the Livermore 2XIIB experiment.
Its magnet, employing superconducting NbTi windings, is of Yin-Yang form and will weigh tons. MFTF will be driven by neutral beams of two levels of current and energy: Two operating modes for MFTF are envisaged: The second possible mode is the further study of the Field Reversed Mirror idea, using high current neutral beams to sustain the field-reversed state.
Requirements for facilities transferring or receiving select agents. CDC administers regulations that govern the transfer of certain biological agents and toxins "select agents". No comments were received in response to this proposal. CDC is therefore amending its regulations to incorporate the Fourth Edition. Included in this volume is the project construction schedule.
Future generated waste streams from planned facilities at the Hanford Site and off site will also generate solid wastes that contain both radiological and hazardous chemical components. Most of the low-level waste LLW in this category is generated in batches sized to be stored in smaller containers mostly gallon drums and boxes.
The core processes in WRAP Module 2A include cement stabilization of particulate waste, polyethylene encapsulation via extrusion of particulate waste, and cement encapsulation via vibratory infilling of hard and soft debris. A conceptual design was prepared and issued in July Since that time, process development test activities and further design iterations have evolved into the optimized process and facility design presented in this paper.
This paper will discuss the revised processing scheme, equipment configuration, and facility layout. Mineral facilities of Northern and Central Eurasia. This map displays almost records of mineral facilities within the countries that formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location.
Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc.
Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable , and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees. The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including 1 the most recently available data from the U.
Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.
Summary of recent results. The main focus of the activities is about the qualification tests of the Central Solenoid CS conductors, with three different samples for a total six variations of strand suppliers and cable layouts. In , five Toroidal Field TF conductor samples have also been tested as part of the supplier and process qualification phase of the European, Korean, Chinese and Russian Federation Agencies. A summary of the test results for all the ITER samples tested in the last period is presented, including an updated statistics of the broad transition, the performance degradation and the impact of layout variations.
Performance and durability testing of parabolic trough receivers. The paper describes the key performance and durability testing facilities of the parabolic trough receiver developed by Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The indoor heat loss test can be applied at different temperature levels within on receivers.
The optical efficiency test bench consists of 12 metal halide lamps as the solar simulator and a 5 m length half-elliptical cylinder reflector with flat end reflectors. The residual gas analysis test bench is applied to analyze and predict the vacuum lifetime of the receiver. It can test the variations of composition and partial pressure of residual gases with temperature and time in the receiver annulus space by a high sensitivity quadrupole mass spectrometer gas analyzer.
A coating accelerated ageing test bench, which is also used to test the thermal cycle, has been developed. This test bench uses the absorber tube of the recevier as the resistance heater to heat up the whole receiver. The coating lifetime can be predicted by the Arrhenius parameters. For the cycling test , the compressed air is used to directly cool the inner surface of the absorber tube. The maximum thermal cycling frequency is 8 cycles per day. The mechanical fatigue test bench is used to test the bellows and the glass-to-metal seals durability at the same time.
Both bellows are expanded and compressed to 6. A new rotating test bench was also developed to test the thermal efficiency of the receiver. This facility gives the mirror program the flexibility to explore mirror confinement principles at a signficant scale and advances the technology of large reactor-like devices. An optical test Dewar is being constructed with the unique capability to test mirrors of diameter less than or equal to 1 m, f less than or equal to 6, at temperatures from to 4.
The design and performance of this facility will be presented. Corrosion testing facilities in India. Major types of corrosion tests , establishment of specifications on corrosion testing and scope of their application in practice are briefly described. Indian organizations which undertake corrosion testing and test facilities available at them are also listed. Finally in an appendix, a comprehensive list of specifications relevant to corrosion testing is given.
It is arranged under the headings: Each entry in the list furnishes information about: Multifunction waveform generator for EM receiver testing. To assess the performance of the developed EM receivers , controlled synthetic data that simulate the observed signals in different modes are required. Based on our testing , the frequency range, frequency precision, and time synchronization of the currently available function waveform generators on the market are deficient.
This paper presents a multifunction waveform generator with three waveforms: In this paper, we provide the principles of the above three waveforms along with a hardware design for the generator. Furthermore, testing of the EM receiver was conducted with the waveform generator, and the results of the experiment were compared with those calculated from the simulation and theory in the frequency band of interest. Buildings, fields of activity, testing facilities.
Since the activities of the Materialpruefungsanstalt Stuttgart MPA have grown quickly as planned, especially in the field of reactor safety research, which made it necessary to increase the staff to approximately members, to supplement the machines and equipment and to extend the fields of activities occasioning a further departmental reorganization. At present the MPA has the following departments: Teaching materials testing , materials science and strength of materials 2.
Materials and Welding Technology 3. Design and Strength 5. Creep and Fatigue Testing 6. Vessel and Component Testing. Engineering test facility design center. The ETF would provide a test bed for reactor components in the fusion environment.
This section describes the status of this design. Oak Ridge rf Test Facility. These are arranged as a simple mirror with a mirror ratio of 4. The axial centerline distance between magnet throat centers is cm. Attached to the internal vessel walls are water-cooled panels for removing the injected rf power. The magnets are capable of generating a steady-state field of approx. Steady-state plasmas are generated in the facility by cyclotron resonance breakdown using a dedicated kW, GHz gyrotron.
Available rf sources cover a frequency range of 2 to MHz at 1. Details of the conceptual design, economic analysis, and development plan for a solar central receiver system for retrofitting the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc. The SCRR system displaces natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber. The solar reformer retrofit system characteristics and its interface with the existing plant are simple, incorporating state of the art components with proven technology. A northfield composed of one thousand forty second generation heliostats provides solar energy to the receiver which is positioned on top of a 90 meter high steel tower.
The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility. It consists of a MeV electron beam synchronizable to a high-peak power CO 2 laser.
The interaction of electrons with the laser field will be probed, with some emphasis on exploring laser-based acceleration techniques. Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. The accelerator components will be fabricated by US industry. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in September The facility 's controlled environment provides hour Qualification test for the flexible receiver.
This document provides the test plan and procedures to certify and design verify the 42 inch and inch Flexible Receiver FR is a safety class 3 system. Verification of the design will be handled in two parts. The first part will be to show that it meets design requirements set forth by documents and the second part will perform test s to verify its operational aspects.
To qualify the design of the FR systems for field use this test will demonstrate environmentally safe removal of a Tank Farm pump mock-up from a Tank Farm riser mock-up.
Testing will also demonstrate the performance of supporting equipment. The FR and the Secondary Bagging SB equipment shall be tested to verify successful operation of the equipment to the following criteria: The FR can be placed on a riser and connections made to the supporting equipment; The FR bag can accept equipment and be successfully sealed; The SB system encases the seal of the primary FR bag; The flexible bag s do not tear and maintain integrity during the entire test ; The FR control system operates in the fail safe forced sequence mode; The FR control system will operate in the manual override mode out of sequence operations ; The CCTV Video system monitors and records the removal of the test item; The spray wash system operates without leaks and effectively provides coverage; The item being removed can be reinserted to a depth of 8 feet and the bag reinstalled onto the vertical bag supports; and The system prohibits momentary mechanical fluctuations due to the application of system power, including power interruptions.
Solar central receiver hybrid power system. The project plan and the management controls that will be used to assure technically adequate, timely and cost effective performance of the work required to prepare the designated end products are described. Bechtel in-house controls and those to be used in directing the subcontractors are described. Phase I of the project consists of tradeoff studies, parametric analyses, and engineering studies leading to conceptual definition and evaluation of a commercial hybrid power system that has the potential for supplying economically competitive electric power to a utility grid in the time frame.
The scope also includes the preparation of a development plan for the resolution of technical uncertainties and the preparation of plans and a proposal for Phase II of the program. The technical approach will be based on a central receiver solar energy collection scheme which supplies thermal energy to a combined cycle, generating system, consisting of a gas turbine cycle combined with a steam bottoming cycle by means of a heat recovery steam generator.
Millimeter-wave Instrumentation Test Facility. Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Millimeter-wave Instrumentation Test Facility conducts basic research in propagation phenomena, remote sensing, and target signatures. The facility has a breadth Large-scale use of solar energy with central receivers. The working principles of solar central receiver power plants are outlined and applications are discussed.
Heliostat arrays direct sunlight into a receiver cavity mounted on a tower, heating the working fluid in the tower to temperatures exceeding C. The formulation for the image plane and the geometric concentration ratio for a heliostat field are provided, noting that commercial electric power plants will require concentration ratios of Automated controls consider imperfections in the mirrors, tracking errors, and seasonal insolation intensity and angular variations.
Membranes may be used instead of rigid heliostat mirrors to reduce costs, while trade-offs exist between the efficiencies of cavity and exterior receivers on the tower. Sensible heat storage has proved most effective for cloudy or nighttime operations.
ITER primary cryopump test facility. Prior to the construction of a prototype cryopump, the concept is tested on a reduced scale model pump. To test the model pump, the TIMO facility is being built at FZK in which the model pump operation under ITER environmental conditions, except for tritium exposure, neutron irradiation and magnetic fields, can be simulated. The model pump test programme will be performed with regard to the pumping performance and cryogenic operation of the pump.
The results of the model pump testing will lead to the design of the full scale ITER cryopump. This volume, Volume 1 provides a narrative of the project background, objective and justification. Significant project requirements such as security, health, safety, decontamination and decomissioning, maintenance, data processing, and quality are outlined. Environmental compliance issues and regulatory permits are identified, and a preliminary safety evaluation is provided.
This volume, Volume V, provides a comprehensive conceptual design level narrative description of the process, utility, ventilation, and plant control systems. The feeds and throughputs, design requirements, and basis for process selection are provided, as appropriate.
The mission of the facility is to receive , process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities those contact handled CH low-level radioactive mixed wastes LLMW that: This volume, Volume III is a compilation of the outline specifications that will form the basis for development of the Title design construction specifications.
This volume contains abbreviated CSI outline specifications for equipment as well as non-equipment related construction and material items. For process and mechanical equipment, data sheets are provided with the specifications which indicate the equipment overall design parameters. This volume also includes a major equipment list. Testing experience with fast flux test facility. Early FFTF project planning emphasized partial and full-scale testing of major reactor and plant prototype components under expected environmental conditions, excluding radiation fields.
Several new sodium facilities were constructed, and confirmation tests on the prototype components are now in progress. Test conditions and results to date are reported for the primary pump, intermediate heat exchanger, sodium-to-air dump heat exchanger, large and small sodium valves, purification cold trap, in-vessel handling machine, instrument tree, core restraint, control rod system, low-level flux monitor, closed loop ex-vessel machine, refueling equipment, and selected maintenance equipment.
Central serous chorioretinopathy CSR is a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina commonly associated with male sex, Type-A personality and corticosteroid use. Exogenous administration of androgens and development of CSR in men has been reported. Only one case of CSR in a postmenopausal woman receiving exogenous androgen therapy has been reported.
The authors describe three cases of chronic CSR in postmenopausal women receiving exogenous testosterone therapy. Diagnosis was based on characteristic clinical, fluorescein angiographic, and optical coherence tomography findings. The three women were being treated with exogenous testosterone and progesterone therapy for symptoms of menopause and libido loss.
Average age at presentation was Resolution of symptoms seemed correlated with cessation of androgen use despite treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy and intravitreal pharmacotherapy with antivascular endothelial growth factor agents.
Exogenous testosterone is increasingly prescribed for menopausal symptoms and libido loss. Treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy, supplemental bevacizumab intravitreal pharmacotherapy, and cessation of exogenous androgen therapy was successful in three cases of chronic, therapy-resistant CSR. Ophthalmologists should inquire about androgen usage in patients who present with CSR, especially in the setting of therapy resistance.
A comprehensive centralized control system for radiation waste treatment facility. A comprehensive centralized control system is designed for the radiation waste treatment facility that lacking of coordinated operational mechanism for the radiation waste treatment. The centralized control and alarm linkage of various systems is implemented to ensure effectively the safety of nuclear facility and materials, improve the integral control ability through advanced informatization ways.
Liquidity Facility , shall adhere to the requirements stated in part of this chapter. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet. It seeks to combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with the most advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from the 15 tons in Baseball II to tons in MFTF.
Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime. Design specifics of the magnet are given. This document provides a listing of those essential or safety related drawings which have been identified to date. All other WRAP facility drawings have been classified as general. The upper feet of the subsurface consists of varved gypsiferous clay and silt. Below these surfidai deposits the lithology consists of interbedded clay units, silty-clay units, and fine- to medium-grained quartz arenite units in continuous and discontinuous horizons.
Clay horizons can cause perched water above the water table. The main aquifer is representative of a leaky-confined aquifer. Estimated aquifer properties are: Ground water flows south and southwest; the estimated hydraulic gradient is 5. Analyses of water samples indicate that ground water at the HELSTF site is brackish to slightly saline at the top of the main aquifer. Dissolved-solids concentration near the top of the main aquifer ranges from 5, to 11, milligrams per liter. Predominant ions are sodium and sulfate.
At feet below land surface, the largest dissolved-solids concentration measured is , milligrams per liter, which indicates increasing salinity with depth. Predominant ions are sodium and chloride. Drop test facility available to private industry. Because of the facility 's unique capability for drop- testing large, massive shipping packages, it has been identified as a facility which can be made available for non-DOE users.
The principal objective of the study is to determine if supercritical heat transport fluids in a central receiver power plant, in combination with ceramic thermocline storage systems, offer a reduction in levelized energy cost over a baseline nitrate salt concept.
The baseline concept uses a nitrate salt receiver , two-tank hot and cold nitrate salt thermal storage, and a subcritical Rankine cycle. A total of 6 plant designs were analyzed, as follows: Nonetheless, the high operating pressures for the supercritical fluid require the use of pressure vessels to contain the storage inventory.
Engineering test facility design definition. Performance of this plant is expected to meet or surpass existing utility standards for fuel, maintenance, and operating costs; plant availability; load following; safety; and durability. It is expected to meet all applicable environmental regulations.
The current design concept conforming to the general definition, the basis for its selection, and the process which will be followed in further defining and updating the conceptual design.
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