The concentration of CBD; The weight of the individual; The individual's In other words, there isn't necessarily a universal CBD dosage. Here are some pointers that can help you choose the right CBD oil. Believe it or not, CBD oils vary greatly in concentration, quality, and more. In order to get the CBD oil that best suits your needs, the two most important things to consider are the strength and concentration. Other factors to consider.
As one of the original CBD manufacturers, Green Roads reputation truly precedes them, and their pharmacist formulated manufacturing process is why we selected them as the best quality CBD oil on the market. They offer a range of CBD oil concentrations mg, mg, mg, mg, mg, mg, and 3,mg all of which allow you to view ingredients and test results from a 3rd party testing facility via a QR code on the box. Though unflavored and priced higher than competitors, Green Roads CBD oils are made by a trusted manufacturer and use organically grown hemp.
Tinctures are available in 30mL containers and mg, mg, mg, 2,mg, and 4,mg concentrations. These products come in watermelon or peppermint flavors. These products do not contain any THC and pose no risk for drug test takers.
As a general rule of thumb, low-concentration oils are a good option for smaller dogs while larger concentrations may be more suitable for larger breeds — but pet owners should always check with their vet beforehand. Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is a natural phyto-cannabinoid or plant-based chemical compound found in cannabis plants, including hemp and marijuana.
Unlike other cannabinoids — namely tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC — CBD does not produce any psychoactive effects, and will actually counteract these effects to a degree. CBD can enter the body in many ways, including as an oil extract. This guide will discuss how CBD oils help induce sleep in users, explore safety and legal concerns associated with these products, share some tips for first-time buyers, and list our picks for the top CBD oils for sleep that are sold today.
CBD oil derived from marijuana is subject to stricter state and federal laws than oil derived from hemp. As a result, the former is more difficult to legally obtain in certain parts of the U. For this reason, our recommendations in this guide will exclusively focus on hemp-based CBD oils. While we at Tuck. Before trying CBD oil for the first time, please consult your doctor to ensure this product is right for you. CBD is naturally occurring, and is among the largest cannabinoids found in hemp and marijuana.
The human body also produces cannabinoids, known as endocannabinoids, in a bodily system known as the endocannabinoid system or ECS. The ECS promotes homeostasis by regulating a wide range of functions, including motor skills, mood, appetite, and sleep. As we age, our ECS produces fewer endocannabinoids; they may also decrease due to physical injury or disease.
Replenishing depleted endocannabinoids with phytocannabinoids like CBD can help restore balance to the body. As a rule, CBD oil extracted from hemp will contain no more than 0.
CBD oils extracted from hemp generally fall into one of the following three categories: The vast majority of CBD oils come in bottles measuring either 15 milliliters mL , or 0. However, CBD concentration is more important than bottle size. Concentration refers to the ratio of hemp oil solution measured in mL compared to the amount of CBD cannabinoid measured in milligrams, or mg. A mL bottle may contain mg of CBD, mg, mg, or more. The higher the mg amount, the stronger the CBD oil will be. How much CBD oil you should take largely depends on your bodyweight, as well as the desired effects.
The next table breaks down the effects of different doses based on these two factors. Always consult your physician to determine the best dosage for you. CBD oil alleviates physical pain and anxiety — both of which can have a negative impact on sleep.
Additionally, CBD oil can actually prolong sleep for some, leading to more rest from night to night. However, please note that the medicinal effects of CBD oil have not been studied extensively.
While many medical patients claim the oils improve sleep quality and duration, more clinical trials are needed to determine how and why these improvements occur — and if they are applicable to all individuals. Additionally, CBD oil is also associated with some negative side effects. CBD oil is considered therapeutic and low-risk for most users.
However, CBD oil may result in the following adverse effects: This may be the desired effect. In recent years, the legality of CBD oil and other products derived from hemp or marijuana has been a hot-button issue. Historically, hemp could legally be grown and cultivated for academic research purposes only. However, the legality of hemp growth has changed in the past year. In April , Sen. Mitch McConnell of Kentucky introduced the Hemp Farming Act of , a piece of legislation that proposed legalizing all hemp products at the federal level.
Per the farm bill, industrial hemp will be descheduled as a federally controlled substance. Still, the legality of marijuana-based CBD oil also varies from state to state. The table below lists general guidelines for hemp- and marijuana-based CBD oil consumption based on different state laws. These states have more complex laws pertaining to hemp- and marijuana-based CBD oils.
These initiatives may have a bearing on the legality and availability of CBD oils. Three other states, Arizona, Missouri, and Nebraska, failed to garner enough votes to place marijuana initiatives on the ballots.
These laws are ever-changing, and the guidelines listed above should not substitute for legal advice. When purchasing hemp-derived CBD oil for sleep, you may be able to find products through one or more of the following establishments: Cost is another consideration. Most CBD oils are sold in concentrations of to mg, although this may range from less than mg to more than 2, A good indicator of price-point is the cost per milligram.
Low-cost CBD oils usually fall between five and 10 cents per mg; mid-range prices are 11 to 15 cents per mg; and higher-end oils cost 16 cents per mg or higher. Although price may be an indicator of CBD oil quality, we suggest researching the following factors to ensure the oil you select is considered high-quality. Some forms of CBD oil — such as vapors and tinctures — normally have higher-than-average concentrations, whereas sprays and topicals tend to have lower concentrations.
When buying CBD oil for the first time and comparing different products, here are a few variables to keep in mind: As noted in the previous section, CBD oil prices vary significantly by brand. The best practice for most is to determine a per-milligram budget for CBD oil, as well as a maximum price for the entire bottle. Also, if ordering online, be sure to include potential shipping costs.
Weight plays a role in the effects of CBD oil, and bottle size should be selected based on how much you weigh. If you weigh more than pounds and desire strong effects, then this same concentration will supply roughly 10 doses.
Also, state residence may indicate that fewer buying locations are available. If the answer is yes, then full spectrum CBD oils may not be a feasible option due to their THC content; although these oils contain trace amounts of THC, this may lead to a failed drug test. Crystalline isolate oils, on the other hand, contain no THC and will not compromise drug tests in any way. Third-party testing information is vital for consumers; any CBD oils that do not supply these details should be avoided.
Lab results are not as crucial, but may indicate a higher-quality product if they are included. Both online and brick-and-mortar experiences carry pros and cons for CBD oil shoppers. In addition to natural, unscented CBD oils, many oils come in different flavors.
This factor boils down to personal preference — although the flavor selection will be broader with some brands than others. How Does Marijuana Affect Sleep? This research is supported by you, our readers, through our independently chosen links, which earn us a commission. Crystalline Isolate Oil is extracted from cannabis plant, then allowed to cool; this isolates the CBD from other cannabinoids The oil forms crystals and is crushed into a powder None White and twinkly No Full Spectrum Oil Oil is extracted from the cannabis plant Oil is not cooled, allowing it to retain THC and other cannabinoids 0.
CBD oil can be consumed in several different ways. CBD oils may be manufactured as small capsules that are orally ingested. Another form of oral CBD oil ingestion is the tincture, often used as a food additive. Tinctures are sold in dropper bottles; most users place one or two drops beneath their tongue for several minutes in order to experience the full effects. Tinctures normally have stronger concentrations compared to other CBD products. CBD oil can be ingested as an oral spray.
Sprays tend to have lower concentrations compared to other CBD products. This form of CBD oil is applied directly to the skin; it usually has the consistency of lotion. Weight Group Recommended Dosage for Mild Effects Recommended Dosage for Moderate Effects Recommended Dosage for Strong Effects Light less than pounds 11 mg or less 12 to 14 mg 15 to 17 mg Medium to pounds 18 mg or less 15 to 23 mg 18 to 28 mg Heavy more than pounds 23 mg or less 24 to 30 mg 29 to 45 mg.
The anxiety-alleviating and sleep-prolonging qualities of CBD oil make it a good option for many people with insomnia. Those who experience insomnia due to pain or discomfort may also find that using CBD oil alleviates their physical symptoms to a noticeable extent. CBD oil may also promote daytime wakefulness when taken in small amounts; people with insomnia can use it as a pick-me-up if they feel excessively tired due to lack of restful sleep.
REM behavior disorder RBD is a parasomnia disorder characterized by shouting, becoming physically agitated, or otherwise acting out during sleep. Both depression and anxiety disorder have been linked to sleep disruption. CBD oil can alleviate symptoms of these disorders because it activates serotonin receptors in the brain; the release of serotonin has soothing, anti-anxiety effects that can help people sleep.
CBD oil also increases levels of adenosine in the brain; adenosine is a neurotransmitter that aids cardiovascular function and eases painful inflammation. Concentrations increased rapidly, reaching mean peaks of Peak concentrations occurred at 9. Despite a computer-paced smoking procedure that controlled the number of puffs, length of inhalation, hold time, and time between puffs, there were large inter-subject differences in plasma THC concentrations due to differences in the depth of inhalation, as participants titrated their THC dose Fig.
The mean THC concentrations were ca. Time-dependent THC concentrations for six individuals subjects B, C, and E—H following smoking of a single cannabis cigarette containing 3. Reprinted and adapted with permission by Journal of Analytical Toxicology, p. Similar mean maximum THC concentrations were reported in specimens collected immediately after cannabis smoking was completed. The mean peak THC concentrations were Other reported peak THC concentrations ranged between The smoking route is preferred by many cannabis users because of its rapid drug delivery and resultant fast onset of effects, but also for the ability to titrate dose to the desired degree of effect.
In our controlled smoked-cannabis experiments described above, the individual with the lowest peak plasma concentration had the greatest cardiovascular response [ 15 ]. The average concentrations in more than 30, cannabis preparations confiscated in the U. However, cannabis-based medicine extracts and clinical-grade cannabis contain high quantities of CBD, which frequently equal the percentage of THC [ 19 ].
There are fewer studies on the disposition of THC and its metabolites after oral administration of cannabis as compared to the smoked route. The advantages of cannabinoid smoking are offset by the harmful effects of cannabinoid smoke; hence smoking is generally not recommended for therapeutic applications.
In addition, abuse of cannabis by the oral route also is common. Absorption is slower when cannabinoids are ingested, with lower, more-delayed peak THC concentrations [ 24 ][ 25 ].
Dose, route of administration, vehicle, and physiological factors such as absorption and rates of metabolism and excretion can influence drug concentrations in circulation.
Glycocholate and sesame oil improved the bioavailability of oral THC; however, there was considerable variability in peak concentrations and rates of absorption, even when the drug was administered in the same vehicle.
Participants were dosed with either 15 mg women or 20 mg men of THC dissolved in sesame oil and contained in gelatin capsules. THC Plasma concentrations peaked ca. A percentage of the THC was radiolabeled; however, investigators were unable to differentiate labeled THC from its labeled metabolites. Thus, THC concentrations were overestimated.
Possibly a more accurate assessment of oral bioavailability of THC in plasma samples was reported by Ohlsson et al. The peak THC concentrations ranged from 4. Potential new indications include the reduction of spasticity, analgesia, and as an agonist-replacement pharmacotherapy for cannabis dependence. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of oral THC is of great importance to the successful application of new therapeutic approaches.
Interestingly, two THC peaks frequently were observed due to enterohepatic circulation. Onset is delayed, peak concentrations are lower, and duration of pharmacodynamic effects generally are extended with a delayed return to baseline, when THC is administered by the oral as compared to the smoked route [ 29 ][ 30 ]. In addition, THC-containing foods, i.
The THC content depends upon the effectiveness of cannabis-seed-cleaning and oil-filtration processes. Currently, the THC concentrations of hemp oil in the U. In a recent, controlled cannabinoid-administration study of THC-containing hemp oils and dronabinol, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral THC were evaluated.
There was a d washout phase between each of the five dosing sessions. This could be due to the formulation of dronabinol, which afforded greater protection from degradation in the stomach due to encapsulation and perhaps, improved bioavailability of THC in sesame oil, the formulation of synthetic THC or dronabinol. Reprinted and adapted with permission by Elsevier, p. After oral THC dosing, Nadulski et al. Due to low bioavailability of oral THC formulations, alternative routes of drug administration, including oromucosal or sublingual dosing, vaporization of product and inhalation, and rectal administration, have been developed to improve the amount of delivered cannabinoids.
Due to the chemical complexity of cannabis plant material compared to synthetic THC, extracts of cannabis that capture the full range of cannabinoids are being explored as therapeutic medications. Cannabis has been used as medicine for thousands of years [ 34 ][ 35 ]. Clinical trials of the efficacy of these extracts are ongoing for analgesia [ 37 ][ 38 ] and spasticity, and other indications in affected patients [ 39 ].
Several different suppository formulations were evaluated in monkeys to determine the matrix that maximizes bioavailability and reduces first-pass metabolism [ 40 ][ 41 ]; THC-hemisuccinate provided the highest bioavailability of Rectal administration of 2.
The bioavailability of the rectal route was approximately twice that of the oral route due to higher absorption and lower first-pass metabolism. Another route of cannabinoid exposure that avoids first-pass metabolism and improves THC bioavailability is topical administration [ 43 ]. Cannabinoids are highly hydrophobic, making transport across the aqueous layer of the skin the rate-limiting step in the diffusion process [ 44 ][ 45 ].
In vitro diffusion studies may underestimate in vivo transdermal flux [ 43 ]. In vivo studies of transdermal drug delivery in guinea pigs noted the presence of significant amounts of plasma metabolites after topical application of THC [ 46 ].
Additional research is planned with combinations of cannabinoids in EtOH to increase drug absorption. Transdermal delivery of cannabinoids is hoped to reduce negative side effects seen with inhalation dosing [ 47 ]. Transdermal delivery also bypasses first-pass metabolism of cannabinoids. These properties could improve the utility of transdermal cannabinoid medications.
Applying a transdermal patch several hours before chemotherapy, and wearing it for several days, would be a convenient means for treating associated nausea and vomiting. Also, wearing a patch for a week to stimulate appetite could be a good alternative to twice a day oral dosing of dronabinol. The drug-abuse potential of cannabinoid transdermal patches is expected to be low because of slow delivery of THC to the brain. However, extraction of cannabinoids from the patch for administration by a more-rapid method has not been evaluated.
Diversion of fentanyl patches by drug abusers for use in such a manner has been a significant problem. Although THC is not abused by the intravenous route, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic cannabinoid research has employed this technique. Recently, D'Souza et al.
The double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study investigated the behavioral, cognitive, and endocrine effects of 0, 2. Some subjects withdrew from the study due to acute paranoia 1 , panic 1 , hypotension 2 , withdrawal of consent due to dislike of THC effects 3 , and other issues 2.
One subject experienced a significant, acute paranoid reaction and was treated with 2 mg lorazepam. THC produced schizophrenia-like positive and negative symptoms and euphoria, and altered aspects of cognitive function. Plasma cortisol concentrations were not affected. THC produced a broad range of transient symptoms, behaviors, and cognitive deficits in healthy individuals that resembled endogenous psychoses.
The investigators suggested that brain-cannabinoid-receptor function could be an important factor in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. Cannabidiol CBD is a natural, non-psychoactive [ 49 ][ 50 ] constituent of Cannabis sativa , but possesses pharmacological activity, which is explored for therapeutic applications. CBD has been reported to be neuroprotective [ 51 ], analgesic [ 37 ][ 38 ][ 52 ], sedating [ 37 ][ 38 ][ 53 ][ 54 ], anti-emetic [ 54 ], anti-spasmodic [ 55 ], and anti-inflammatory [ 56 ].
In addition, it has been reported that CBD blocks anxiety produced by THC [ 57 ], and may be useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases [ 53 ]. These potential therapeutic applications alone warrant investigation of CBD pharmacokinetics.
Further, the controversy over whether CBD alters the pharmacokinetics of THC in a clinically significant manner needs to be resolved [ 58 ][ 59 ]. Recently, Nadulski et al. The authors suggest that identification and quantification of CBD could be an additional proof of cannabis exposure and could improve interpretation of THC effects considering the potential ability of CBD to modify THC effects.
When comparing sublingual administration of THC 25 mg alone vs. The only statistically significant difference was in the time of maximum THC concentration. All three analytes were detectable ca. High intra- and inter-subject variability was noted. THC Plasma concentrations decrease rapidly after the end of smoking due to rapid distribution into tissues and metabolism in the liver.
THC is highly lipophilic and initially taken up by tissues that are highly perfused, such as the lung, heart, brain, and liver. Tracer doses of radioactive THC documented the large volume of distribution of THC and its slow elimination from body stores.
In animals, after intravenous administration of labeled THC, higher levels of radioactivity were present in lung than in other tissues [ 64 ]. Studies of the distribution of THC into brain are especially important for understanding the relationships between THC dose and behavioral effects. Plasma concentrations were of similar magnitude to those measured in men exposed to marihuana smoke. Kreuz and Axelrod were the first to describe the persistent and preferential retention of radiolabeled THC in neutral fat after multiple doses, in contrast to limited retention in brain [ 66 ].
The ratio of fat to brain THC concentration was approximately With prolonged drug exposure, THC concentrates in human fat, being retained for extended periods of time [ 69 ]. In addition, these investigators found that tolerance to the behavioral effects of THC in pigeons was not due to decreased uptake of cannabinoids into the brain.
Tolerance also was evaluated in humans. Pharmacokinetic changes after chronic oral THC administration could not account for observed behavioral and physiologic tolerance, suggesting rather that tolerance was due to pharmacodynamic adaptation. Adams and Martin studied the THC dose required to induce pharmacological effects in humans [ 73 ].
In a recent, highly interesting study, Mura et al. There was no correlation between blood and brain concentrations; brain levels were always higher than blood levels, and in three cases measurable drug concentrations remained in the brain, when no longer detectable in the blood.
Blood concentrations were lower than in the two-paired brains. The authors postulate that long-lasting effects of cannabis during abstinence in heavy users may be due to residual THC and OH-THC concentrations in the brain. Storage of THC after chronic exposure could also contribute to observed toxicities in other tissues. After single intramuscular administration of radioactive THC in rats, only 0. The authors suggest that the blood—brain and blood—testicular barriers limit storage of THC in brain and testis during acute exposure; however, during THC chronic exposure, pharmacokinetic mechanisms are insufficient to prevent accumulation of THC in tissues, with subsequent deregulation of cellular processes, including apoptosis of spermatogenic cells.
In one of the latest investigations on THC distribution in tissues, the large-white-pig model was selected due to similarities with humans in drug biotransformation, including enzymes and isoenzymes of drug biotransformation, size, feeding patterns, digestive physiology, dietary habits, kidney structure and function, pulmonary vascular bed structure, coronary-artery distribution, propensity to obesity, respiratory rates, and tidal volume [ 75 ].
THC Plasma pharmacokinetics was found to be similar to those in humans. At 30 min, high THC concentrations were noted in lung, kidney, liver, and heart, with comparable elimination kinetics in kidney, heart, spleen, muscle, and lung as observed in blood.
The fastest THC elimination was noted in liver, where concentrations fell below measurable levels by 6 h. Mean brain concentration was approximately twice the blood concentration at 30 min, with highest levels in the cerebellum, and occipital and frontal cortex, and lowest concentrations in the medulla oblongata.
THC Concentrations decreased in brain tissue slower than in blood. The slowest THC elimination was observed for fat tissue, where THC was still present at substantial concentrations 24 h later.
The authors suggest that the prolonged retention of THC in brain and fat in heavy cannabis users is responsible for the prolonged detection of THC-COOH in urine and cannabis-related flashbacks. The author of this review hypothesizes that this residual THC may also contribute to cognitive deficits noted early during abstinence in chronic cannabis users. THC accumulation in the lung occurs because of high exposure from cannabis smoke, extensive perfusion of the lung, and high uptake of basic compounds in lung tissue.
Lung tissue is readily available during postmortem analysis, and would be a good matrix for investigation of cannabis exposure. Other possible explanations include lower plasma-protein binding of OH-THC or enhanced crossing of the blood—brain barrier by the hydroxylated metabolite.
The distribution volume V d of THC is large, ca. More recently, with the benefit of advanced analytical techniques, the steady state V d value of THC was estimated to be 3. THC-COOH was found to be far less lipophilic than the parent drug, whose partition coefficient P value at neutral pH has been measured at 6, or higher , and more lipophilic than the glucuronide [ 78 ].
The fraction of THC glucuronide present in blood after different routes of administration has not been adequately resolved, but, recently, the partition coefficient of this compound indicated an unexpectedly high lipophilicity, ca.
THC rapidly crosses the placenta, although concentrations were lower in canine and ovine fetal blood and tissues than in maternal plasma and tissues [ 79 ].
Blackard and Tennes reported that THC in cord blood was three to six times less than in maternal blood [ 82 ]. Transfer of THC to the fetus was greater in early pregnancy. THC also concentrates into breast milk from maternal plasma due to its high lipophilicity [ 83 ][ 84 ].
THC Concentration in breast milk was 8. They also documented that THC can be metabolized in the brain. Conjugation with glucuronic acid is a common Phase-II reaction. Side-chain hydroxylation was common in all three species. THC Concentrations accumulated in the liver, lung, heart, and spleen.
Hydroxylation of THC at C 9 by the hepatic CYP enzyme system leads to production of the equipotent metabolite OH-THC [ 89 ][ 90 ], originally thought by early investigators to be the true psychoactive analyte [ 64 ].
More than THC metabolites, including di- and trihydroxy compounds, ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids, have been identified [ 21 ][ 70 ][ 91 ]. Less than fivefold variability in 2C9 rates of activity was observed, while much higher variability was noted for the 3A enzyme. THC-COOH and its glucuronide conjugate are the major end products of biotransformation in most species, including man [ 91 ][ 95 ].
The phenolic OH group may be a target as well. Addition of the glucuronide group improves water solubility, facilitating excretion, but renal clearance of these polar metabolites is low due to extensive protein binding [ 72 ].
No significant differences in metabolism between men and women have been reported [ 27 ]. After the initial distribution phase, the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of THC is its redistribution from lipid depots into blood [ 98 ]. However, later studies did not corroborate this finding [ 8 ][ 91 ]. More than 30 metabolites of CBD were identified in urine, with hydroxylation of the 7-Me group and subsequent oxidation to the corresponding carboxylic acid as the main metabolic route, in analogy to THC [ ].
Other tissues, including brain, intestine, and lung, may contribute to the metabolism of THC, although alternate hydroxylation pathways may be more prominent [ 86 ][ - ]. An extrahepatic metabolic site should be suspected whenever total body clearance exceeds blood flow to the liver, or when severe liver dysfunction does not affect metabolic clearance [ ]. Within the brain, higher concentrations of CYP enzymes are found in the brain stem and cerebellum [ ]. Metabolism of THC by fresh biopsies of human intestinal mucosa yielded polar hydroxylated metabolites that directly correlated with time and amount of intestinal tissue [ ].
In a study of the metabolism of THC in the brains of mice, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits, Watanabe et al. Hydroxylation of C 4 of the pentyl side chain produced the most common THC metabolite in the brains of these animals, similar to THC metabolites produced in the lung.
These metabolites are pharmacologically active, but their relative activity is unknown. CBD Metabolism is similar to that of THC, with primary oxidation of C 9 to the alcohol and carboxylic acid [ 8 ][ ], as well as side-chain oxidation [ 88 ][ ].
Co-administration of CBD did not significantly affect the total clearance, volume of distribution, and terminal elimination half-lives of THC metabolites. Numerous acidic metabolites are found in the urine, many of which are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase their water solubility. Another common problem with studying the pharmacokinetics of cannabinoids in humans is the need for highly sensitive procedures to measure low cannabinoid concentrations in the terminal phase of excretion, and the requirement for monitoring plasma concentrations over an extended period to adequately determine cannabinoid half-lives.
The slow release of THC from lipid-storage compartments and significant enterohepatic circulation contribute to a long terminal half-life of THC in plasma, reported to be greater than 4. Isotopically labeled THC and sensitive analytical procedures were used to obtain this drug half-life.
No significant pharmacokinetic differences between chronic and occasional users have been substantiated [ ]. An average of This represents an average of only 0.
Prior to harvesting, cannabis plant material contains little active THC. When smoked, THC carboxylic acids spontaneously decarboxylate to produce THC, with nearly complete conversion upon heating. Pyrolysis of THC during smoking destroys additional drug. Drug availability is further reduced by loss of drug in the side-stream smoke and drug remaining in the unsmoked cigarette butt. These factors contribute to high variability in drug delivery by the smoked route.
It is estimated that the systemic availability of smoked THC is ca. THC Bioavailability is reduced due to the combined effect of these factors; the actual available dose is much lower than the amount of THC and THC precursor present in the cigarette. Another factor affecting the low amount of recovered dose is measurement of a single metabolite. Following controlled oral administration of THC in dronabinol or hemp oil, urinary cannabinoid excretion was characterized in 4, urine specimens [ ][ ].
THC Doses of 0. The two high doses 7. The availability of cannabinoid-containing foodstuffs, cannabinoid-based therapeutics, and continued abuse of oral cannabis require scientific data for the accurate interpretation of cannabinoid tests.
These data demonstrate that it is possible, but unlikely, for a urine specimen to test positive at the federally mandated cannabinoid cutoffs, following manufacturer's dosing recommendations for the ingestion of hemp oils of low THC concentration. An average of only 2. Specimen preparation for cannabinoid testing frequently includes a hydrolysis step to free cannabinoids from their glucuronide conjugates. Alkaline hydrolysis appears to efficiently hydrolyze the ester glucuronide linkage.
Mean THC concentrations in urine specimens from seven subjects, collected after each had smoked a single marijuana cigarette 3. Using a modified analytical method with E. We found that OH-THC may be excreted in the urine of chronic cannabis users for a much longer period of time, beyond the period of pharmacodynamic effects and performance impairment.
Compared to other drugs of abuse, analysis of cannabinoids presents some difficult challenges. Complex specimen matrices, i. Care must be taken to avoid low recoveries of cannabinoids due to their high affinity to glass and plastic containers, and to alternate matrix-collection devices [ - ].
Whole-blood cannabinoid concentrations are approximately one-half the concentrations found in plasma specimens, due to the low partition coefficient of drug into erythrocytes [ 96 ][ ][ ]. THC Detection times in plasma of 3. In the latter study, the terminal half-life of THC in plasma was determined to be ca. This inactive metabolite was detected in the plasma of all subjects by 8 min after the start of smoking. The half-life of the rapid-distribution phase of THC was estimated to be 55 min over this short sampling interval.
The relative percentages of free and conjugated cannabinoids in plasma after different routes of drug administration are unclear. Even the efficacy of alkaline- and enzymatic-hydrolysis procedures to release analytes from their conjugates is not fully understood [ 24 ][ 77 ][ 93 ][ ][ ][ ][ - ]. In general, the concentrations of conjugate are believed to be lower in plasma, following intravenous or smoked administration, but may be of much greater magnitude after oral intake.
There is no indication that the glucuronide conjugates are active, although supporting data are lacking. Peak concentrations and time-to-peak concentrations varied sometimes considerably between subjects.
Most THC plasma data have been collected following acute exposure; less is known of plasma THC concentrations in frequent users. No difference in terminal half-life in frequent or infrequent users was observed. There continues to be controversy in the interpretation of cannabinoid results from blood analysis, some general concepts having wide support. It is well-established that plasma THC concentrations begin to decline prior to the time of peak effects, although it has been shown that THC effects appear rapidly after initiation of smoking [ 15 ].
Individual drug concentrations and ratios of cannabinoid metabolite to parent drug concentration have been suggested as potentially useful indicators of recent drug use [ 24 ][ ].
This is in agreement with results reported by Mason and McBay [ 96 ], and those by Huestis et al. Measurement of cannabinoid analytes with short time courses of detection e. This correlates well with the suggested concentration of plasma THC, due to the fact that THC in hemolyzed blood is approximately one-half the concentration of plasma THC [ ].
Accurate prediction of the time of cannabis exposure would provide valuable information in establishing the role of cannabis as a contributing factor to events under investigation. Two mathematical models for the prediction of time of cannabis use from the analysis of a single plasma specimen for cannabinoids were developed [ ]. More recently, the validation of these predictive models was extended to include estimation of time of use after multiple doses of THC and at low THC concentrations 0.
Some 38 cannabis users each smoked a cigarette containing 2. The predicted times of cannabis smoking, based on each model, were then compared to the actual smoking times. The most accurate approach applied a combination of models I and II. All time estimates were correct for 77 plasma specimens, with THC concentrations of 0.
The models provide an objective, validated method for assessing the contribution of cannabis to accidents or clinical symptoms. These models also appeared to be valuable when applied to the small amount of data from published studies of oral ingestion available at the time. Additional studies were performed to determine if the predictive models could estimate last usage after multiple oral doses, a route of administration more popular with the advent of cannabis therapies.
Each of twelve subjects in one group received a single oral dose of dronabinol 10 mg of synthetic THC. In another protocol, six subjects received four different oral daily doses, divided into thirds, and administered with meals for five consecutive days.
There was a d washout period between each dosing regimen. The daily doses were 0. The actual times between ingestion of THC and blood collection spanned 0.
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The soporific effects of CBD oil are linked to its concentration; low-concentration oils will produce minimal effects, while high-concentration oils will produce. Hemp CBD oil might be different from cannabis CBD oil, but it's because of the other compounds, not Difference in actual CBD concentration. CBD for Focus and Concentration. What were we doing? Oh yes, how cannabidiol is helping people across the globe focus. It may seem odd considering the.