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Hemp and marijuana are strains of the same plant species, cannabis sativa. Though they're both cannabis plants, hemp and marijuana differ notably in their genetic makeup and are cultivated and harvested in different ways. CBD is found in varying levels in both plant varieties.
The plant commonly referred to as marijuana contains higher amounts of THC tetrahydrocannabinol , the psychoactive compound responsible for getting you stoned. The difference between the CBD products sold at vape shops and those for sale at dispensaries stems from their source: CBD extracts available for commercial retail are derived from hemp, while those produced by state-licensed cultivators are extracted from marijuana.
But no matter from where it's sourced, CBD is the same chemical compound—a fact that adds a layer of confusion and absurdity to its legal status. There's not a top-down policy.
The laws governing CBD start with the Controlled Substances Act of , which labeled all varieties of the cannabis plant, hemp included, a Schedule I drug—meaning it's illegal to grow or sell it and the federal government considers it to have no medicinal value whatsoever.
But a "hemp amendment " that was included in the farm bill—and championed by Republican Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell—changed those rules. Previously, hemp could be imported, but it couldn't be grown in the U. The amendment allowed states to create pilot programs to research and cultivate hemp, which the legislation defines as a cannabis plant containing 0.
Marijuana plants grown today contain THC levels hovering around 20 percent. The bill also allows for the marketing of hemp products. Although it's not currently permitted here, legislation is pending in Illinois to allow for the cultivation and sale of hemp. Hemp has long been grown for a variety of purposes: CBD as a favored hemp product is a more recent development.
Over the past several years, as CBD started to gain a reputation for having a variety of therapeutic benefits, hemp producers began marketing and manufacturing CBD extracts. Preliminary research and anecdotal evidence suggests CBD may carry valuable anti-inflammatory, antiseizure, and pain-relief properties, and may also be effective in treating substance abuse disorders, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
The legal picture became infinitely more complicated once states like Illinois began piloting medical marijuana programs and other states, including California, Colorado, and Washington, legalized recreational weed.
While marijuana remains a federally scheduled drug at the national level, its legal status actually depends on where you live. Revolution, like all state-licensed medical marijuana cultivators in Illinois, has been subjected to strict scrutiny since the state's Medical Cannabis Pilot Program took effect in Access to its products is restricted to medical marijuana cardholders, and access to those so-called "green cards" has been hard to come by—just about 16, state residents have obtained them since the launch of the program.
Meanwhile, retailers sell CBD products sourced from hemp to the general public with little fanfare and no state or federal oversight—with mixed benefit to the public.
CBD Kratom owner David Palatnik operates out of two locations—his first shop in Bucktown and a recently opened second location in Andersonville. Palatnik says he first tried CBD as a sleep aid about two years ago after purchasing the extract from a smoke shop. He was inspired to open to his shop because he believed "CBD should not be sold in a smoke shop, but in a nicer shop that offers a lot more information about what CBD is and a lot more variety.
Warrender, who suffers from fibromyalgia, a condition that causes widespread muscle pain, says he tried CBD about a year ago and found it significantly relieved his discomfort. The extract can be ingested as a tincture under the tongue or as a vaporizer liquid. But because sales of CBD in vape shops fall outside the bounds of the state's medical marijuana program, these products are unregulated.
You might buy something labeled CBD, but "you might not be taking anything at all—you might be taking pure glycerin and flavor," Shroyer says. Of these, 18 tested positive for the presence of at least one cannabinoid compound.
But three contained less than 0. Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of GPR55 , a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain. Research suggests that CBD may exert some of its pharmacological action through its inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase FAAH , which may in turn increase the levels of endocannabinoids , such as anandamide , produced by the body.
The drug was approved by Health Canada in for prescription to treat central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis , and in for cancer related pain. Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid. CBD was isolated from the cannabis plant in , and its chemical structure was established in Cannabidiol is the generic name of the drug and its INN.
Selective breeding of cannabis plants has expanded and diversified as commercial and therapeutic markets develop. Some growers in the U. Various strains of "medical marijuana" are found to have a significant variation in the ratios of CBD-to-THC, and are known to contain other non-psychotropic cannabinoids. The Colorado Industrial Hemp Program registers growers of industrial hemp and samples crops to verify that the dry-weight THC concentration does not exceed 0.
Cannabidiol is not scheduled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances or any other UN drug treaty. In addition, in the Drug Enforcement Administration added "marijuana extracts" to the list of Schedule I drugs , which it defined as "an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis , other than the separated resin whether crude or purified obtained from the plant.
In September , following its approval by the FDA for rare types of childhood epilepsy,  Epidiolex was rescheduled by the Drug Enforcement Administration as a Schedule V drug to allow for its prescription use.
The Farm Bill  legalized the sale of "non-viable hemp material" grown within states participating in the Hemp Pilot Program. Prescription medicine Schedule 4 for therapeutic use containing 2 per cent 2.
A schedule 4 drug under the SUSMP is Prescription Only Medicine, or Prescription Animal Remedy — Substances, the use or supply of which should be by or on the order of persons permitted by State or Territory legislation to prescribe and should be available from a pharmacist on prescription.
It is also a prescription medicine under the Medicines Act. In the rules were changed so that anyone wanting to use it could go to the Health Ministry for approval. Prior to this, the only way to obtain a prescription was to seek the personal approval of the Minister of Health. Associate Health Minister Peter Dunne said restrictions would be removed, which means a doctor will now be able to prescribe cannabidiol to patients.
On October 17, , cannabidiol became legal for recreational and medical use. Several industrial hemp varieties can be legally cultivated in Western Europe.
CBD is classified as a medical product in Sweden. Cannabidiol, in an oral-mucosal spray formulation combined with deltatetrahydrocannabinol, is a product available by prescription only until for relief of severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis where other anti- spasmodics have not been effective. Until , products containing cannabidiol marketed for medical purposes were classed as medicines by the UK regulatory body , the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency MHRA and could not be marketed without regulatory approval for the medical claims.
A literature review indicated that cannabidiol was under basic research to identify its possible neurological effects,  although as of [update] , there was limited high-quality evidence for such effects in people. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Cannabinol or Cannabinodiol.
S4 Prescription only UK: Schedule I except Epidiolex, Schedule V. Drug culture Illegal drug trade Psychedelia. Retrieved 28 June Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
Series B, Biological Sciences Review. State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications". Implications for Treating Anxiety-Related Disorders". Journal of Natural Products.
US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 25 June Retrieved 1 November Hard Evidence at Last? Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. A Systematic Review of the Evidence".
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. A Comprehensive Update of Evidence and Recommendations". American Journal of Public Health. Interested in purchasing CBD for your pet? It undergoes an additional filtration process to remove plant materials, waxes, and all cannabinoids other than CBD. Keeping this in mind, here are a few important things to look for to make sure you only purchase safe, high quality CBD products. With the CBD hemp oil industry only a few years old, finding a company with a track record can be difficult.
Still, purchasing CBD from companies, brands, and retailers that have some longevity and a proven track record is an important step to take. When searching for where to buy CBD oil, be sure to look whether CBD hemp oil products are tested for safety and quality by a certified testing facility.
This way, not only will you rest assured that your products are safe, but you can also see verification of the levels of CBD and other cannabinoids. At Medical Marijuana, Inc. First, our hemp is tested after harvest to ensure that it is free of residual contaminants and contains the correct ratio of cannabinoids. Then, after being imported into the U. At Medical Marijuana Inc. Finally, after formulation into our line of CBD hemp oil products, we batch test our hemp oil a final time.
This third testing measures accuracy of CBD content and checks one final time the safety of our products before we ship them to your and your family. Clearly designed, easily understandable labels are a vital part of finding a hemp oil company you can trust. As you would with any food product or supplement you take; when purchasing CBD, make sure the ingredients are clearly marked on the label and no questionable ingredients are included.
Along with an accurate listing of ingredients, you will want to make sure the label reveals proper storage and use information, including standard serving sizes, expected shelf life, and best storage methods. In , the United States Farm Bill was passed, which allowed the farming of hemp for research purposes. This was a step in the right direction for the future U. Companies that offer CBD oil from U. Because domestic hemp is not legally allowed to be used for commercial purposes, we continue to import our hemp to stay within U.
Complete CBD Oil Buyer's guide
Looking for great, effective, pure, and potent CBD in California? The products being sold in mainstream stores and through the mail contain CBD derived from hemp High-CBD strains are ideal for new users, or for people returning to smoking after abstaining for many years. Politics Is CBD Oil Legal?. Our motto at CBD Life is “Find your Balance,” for that reason we focus on providing access to high quality and reliable Hemp based CBD oils and products that. But look closely enough and you can make out two words: “CBD oil. make consumers high, but international demand for CBD is growing as word . other area restaurants and stores — including Mother's Market & Kitchen.