Private Label. Development and production of customized functional gums. gum brands, store branding, or creating a new product using chewing gum as an . Whatever your objectives may be line extensions for existing gum brands, store branding or creating a new product using chewing gum as an effective delivery system with over 40 years of development experience for the private label. asCom´s core business focus lies on private label chewing gum. Due to PL brands increasingly gaining in popularity, we closely work together with a variety of.
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According to the invention, hydrogenated resins, polymerized resins and in particular polyterpene resins have been found to be very suitable as encapsulation materials for encapsulation of active ingredients in compressed chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, said polyterpene resins are selected from the group consisting of polymerized monoterpenes, polymerized cyclic monoterpenes, polymerized delta-limonene, polymerized alpha-pinene, polymerized beta-pinene, styrenated polyterpene, or any combination thereof.
Even though the molecular weight of the preferred polyterpene resins is rather low compared to most polymeric encapsulation materials, it has been found that these polyterpene resins are in fact very effective as encapsulation materials and serves to prolong the period during which the active ingredient is released.
Without being bound to any theory, the effectiveness of the polyterpene resins as encapsulation material may be related to their relatively hydrophobic nature. The encapsulation of active ingredients within such hydrophobic material, as compared to a more hydrophilic material, may prolong the period of chewing during which the water in the saliva is gradually reaching all parts of the active ingredients within the encapsulation.
Also prior to chewing, i. In an embodiment of the invention, said encapsulation material further comprises polyvinyl acetate. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the encapsulation material may advantageously comprise a combination of natural resin and polyvinyl acetate.
Although polyvinyl acetate may be regarded as a relatively hydrophilic polymer, it is has been found that it may be mixed with natural resin such as polyterpene resin to form a combined encapsulation material, which is very suitable in a compressible chewing gum composition according to the invention. In an embodiment of the invention, there is a ratio of said natural resin to said polyvinyl acetate in the range of According to an embodiment of the invention, very advantageous release profiles of active ingredient from compressed chewing gum are obtained when the active ingredient is encapsulated in an encapsulation material comprising a mixture of polyvinyl acetate and natural resin, such as polyterpene resin.
Moreover, the advantage is obtained from the natural resin that the ability of the encapsulation material to protect the active ingredient is improved. As it has been found according to the invention that natural resin is in fact suitable for encapsulation and prolonging of release of active ingredient from compressed chewing gum, several further advantages may moreover be obtained. The natural resin, such as polyterpene resin, may provide a very effective protection of the active ingredient, and thus improve the storage ability of the particles of encapsulation delivery system and consequently of the compressible chewing gum composition.
Thereby, the storage and transportation time may be extended without compromising the quality of the active ingredient. Also during the process of tabletting the compressible chewing gum composition to form the compressed tablets, the natural resin may provide an effective protection of vulnerable active ingredients. Furthermore, in the period of time between manufacturing and use of the final compressed chewing gum tablets with a content of encapsulated active ingredient, a high proportion of natural resin in the encapsulation material may have the effect that the quality of the active ingredient is preserved.
Moreover, an advantage, which may be obtained when applying natural resin in the encapsulaton delivery system, is an improved stability of the encapsulation delivery system and compressible chewing gum composition and thus in the resulting chewing gum. A further advantage obtained according to the invention is that in some embodiments, natural resin may provide a stickiness to the compressed chewing gum, which is typically difficult to obtain in compressed chewing gum. The higher percentages of encapsulation material are applied according to the invention, when it is desired to encapsulate the active ingredients to a large degree, perhaps more or less entirely, for example in order to achieve an effective protection of the active ingredient, or to obtain a slower release of the active ingredient.
Application of less high percentages of encapsulation material may provide encapsulation delivery systems comprising a higher concentration of active ingredient. Thereby, a smaller amount of encapsulation delivery system may be sufficient in order to provide a certain concentration of active ingredient in the compressible chewing gum composition and the resulting compressed chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the tensile strength of the encapsulation delivery system is within the range of 40 - MPa, preferably in the range of 50 - MPa. According to an advatageous embodiment of the invention, the tensile strength should be relatively low, i.
This tensile strength is obtained though the application of natural resin, which may provide the necessary non- elasticity. In an embodiment of the invention, said encapsulation delivery system further comprises one or more softeners.
In various embodiments of the invention, softeners are advantageously added in the encapsulation delivery system to soften the natural resin and any polymeric material applied as encapsulation material. The most suitable softeners have been found to be softeners, which are rather mild in their softening action, such as waxes and oils.
In an embodiment of the invention, at least one of said softeners is selected from the group consisting of waxes, fats, oils, or any combination thereof. According to an embodiment of the invention, the content of elastomer is preferably kept low. The elastomer may affect the tensile strength undesirably. In an embodiment of the invention, said encapsulation delivery system further comprises one or more anti-caking agents. In an embodiment of the invention, two or more encapsulation delivery systems comprise two or more active ingredients.
Combining different encapsulaton delivery systems in one compressible chewing gum composition provides the possibility of controlling the release of two or more of active ingredients at the same time. The active ingredients may be of the same or of different sorts.
Each encapsulation delivery system can be designed for a specific active ingredient, and the application of natural resin in one or more of the encapsulation delivery systems may provide attractive release profiles of certain active ingredients such as pharmaceutical active ingredients, food acids, and high intensity sweeteners. In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the application of natural resin in one or more encapsulation delivery systems may provide the possibility of obtaining an initial fast release and a continuously stable release, which is not reduced within a chewing period of at least 20 minutes, preferably at least 40 minutes.
In an embodiment of the invention, the one or more encapsulation delivery systems comprise at least a first encapsulation delivery system and at least a second encapsulation delivery system comprising different percentages of natural resin. According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, different release properties of the at least two encapsulation delivery systems may be combined to form a desired release profile of the final compressed chewing gum.
In an embodiment of the invention, the one or more encapsulation delivery systems comprise at least a first encapsulation delivery system and at least a second encapsulation delivery system comprising different encapsulation material. In an embodiment of the invention, said compressible chewing gum composition comprises one or more further encapsulation delivery systems comprising polyvinyl acetate as encapsulation material.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, a controlled release may be obtained by having an active ingredient in an encapsulation delivery system comprising polyvinyl acetate as encapsulation material, while the same or another sort of active ingredient is comprised in the encapsulation delivery system comprising at least one natural resin,.
In an embodiment of the invention, the one or more encapsulation delivery systems comprise at least a first encapsulation delivery system comprising at least a first active ingredient and at least a second encapsulation delivery system comprising at least a second active ingredient. In an embodiment of the invention, the active ingredient is distributed in the encapsulation delivery system as particles with particle sizes in the range of 0.
In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient comprises at least one pharmaceutical active ingredient. In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient comprises at least one nutraceutical active ingredient. In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of high intensity sweeteners, food acids, flavors, cooling agents, warming agents, or any combination thereof.
Typically, the basic idea of the encapsulation delivery system is to provide particles with a high content of active ingredients to be encapsulated and subsequently released.
According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, a relatively high amount of active ingredient may be applied in order to provide the desired effect by the relevant active ingredient by means of relatively "few" "high intensity" particles when compared to the number or amount of gum base granules.
In other words, the concentration of the relevant active ingredient should be different and higher in the particles of the encapsulation system if active ingredients are incorporated in the gum base granules. In an embodiment of the invention, the content of active ingredient is different in said chewing gum granules and said particles of encapsulation delivery systems. A further and particular advantage obtained according to the invention by applying active ingredients in particles of encapsulation delivery system instead of in the chewing gum granules is that interaction between chewing gum ingredients and active ingredients is avoided.
Moreover, the separation of active ingredients from the composition of the chewing gum granules implies that the texture of the chewing gum granules may be adjusted without regard to preserving the active ingredients.
A further advantage according to the invention is obtained, as the one or more encapsulation delivery systems make it possible to control the release of active ingredient without affecting the formulation of the chewing gum granules and thus without compromising the texture properties of the chewing gum granules.
Moreover, the encapsulation delivery system may be manufactured by a careful process taking the precautions to avoid damage of vulnerable active ingredients. The mechanical or physical handling of the encapsulation delivery system may be performed with care as compared to the process of manufacturing of chewing gum granules. For example, as regards the temperature during manufacture, the temperature may be kept lower in order to avoid damage of the active ingredients.
In an embodiment of the invention, it is only necessary to adjust the encapsulation delivery system in order to obtain a desired release profile, and it is possible to use a standard gum base and chewing gum formulation in the compressible chewing gum composition and the compressed chewing gum. In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum granules are free of active ingredient. In an embodiment of the invention, said high intensity sweeteners are selected from the group consisting of aspartame, acesulfame-K or other salts of acesulfame, alitame, sucralose, neotame, NEPH, saccharin and its salts, cyclamic acid and its salts, glycyrrhizin, dihydrochalcones, thaumatin, monellin, stevioside, or any mixture thereof.
High intensity sweeteners may advantageously be applied for the purpose of enhancing the sweetening perception of other sweetening agents or flavors. In an embodiment of the invention, said food acids are selected from the group consisting of citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, ascorbic acid, adipic acid, lactic acid, or any mixture thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of cetirizine, nicotine, metformin, metformin HCl, phenylephrine, deca- peptide KSL-W, acesulfame K, aspartame, citric acid, malic acid, vitamin C, resveratrol, any variation thereof or any combination thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, medicaments, nutrients, nutritional supplements, drugs, dental care agents, herbals, and the like and combinations thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the ATC anatomical groups consisting of agents acting on:. A alimentary tract and metabolism, B blood and blood forming organs, C cardiovascular system, D dermatologicals, G genito urinary system and sex hormones, H systemic hormonal preparations, J antiinfectives for systemic use, L antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents, M musculoskeletal system, N nervous system, P antiparasitic products, insecticides and repellents, R respiratory system and S sensory organs, V various, or any combination thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the therapeutical groups consisting of: Psychopharmacological drugs, diagnostica sex hormones allergens, antifungal agents, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD or any combination thereof. In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of metformin, cetirizine, levo cetirizine, phenylephrine, flurbiprofen, nicotine, nicotine bitartrate, nicotine polacrilex, nicotine in combination with alkaline agents, nicotine in combination with caffeine, sodium picosulfate, fluor, fluor in combination with fruit acids, chlorhexidine, or any derivatives thereof, salts thereof, isomers thereof, nicotine antagonists, combinations thereof or compounds comprising one or more of these.
In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of: In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of ephedrine, pseudo ephedrine, caffeine, loratadine, sildenafil, simvastatin, sumatriptan, acetaminophen, calcium carbonate, vitamin D, ibuprofen, aspirin, alginic acid in combination with aluminum hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate, ondansetron, Tibolon, Rimonabant, Varenicline, allergenes, sitagliptin or any derivatives thereof, salts thereof, isomers thereof, combinations thereof or compounds comprising one or more of these.
In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of phytochemicals, such as resveratrol and anthocyanine; herbals, such as green tea or thyme; antioxidants, such as polyphenols; micronutrients; mouth moisteners, such as acids; throat soothing ingredients; appetite suppressors; breath fresheners, such as zinc compounds or copper compounds; diet supplements; cold suppressors; cough suppressors; vitamins, such as vitamin A, vitamin C or vitamin E; minerals, such as chromium; metal ions; alkaline materials, such as carbonates; salts; herbals, dental care agents, such as remineralisation agents, antibacterial agents, anti- caries agents, plaque acid buffering agents, tooth whiteners, stain removers or desensitizing agents; and combinations thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of di-peptides, tri-peptides, oligo-peptides, deca-peptides, deca-peptide KSL, deca-peptide KSL-W, amino acids, proteins, or any combination thereof. In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient comprises a probiotic bacteria, such as lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, lactococcus, streptococcus, leuconostoccus, pediococcus or enterococcus.
In an embodiment of the invention, said active ingredient comprises a prebiotic, such as fructose, galactose, mannose, insulin or soy. Advantageous embodiments of the invention may be obtained, when the chewing gum granules of the compressible chewing gum composition are merely constituted of gum base.
The granules or particles may be produced in several different ways. A gum base- containing granule or a particle may typically be produced substantially into the desired shape and size by means of an extrusion process or alternatively be produced on the basis of a gum base-containing mass which is subsequently separated into particles of a smaller size.
When dealing with non-gum base-containing granules or particles, these particles or granules may be produced as indicated above or e. In an embodiment of the invention, said compressible chewing gum composition further comprises chewing gum additives selected from the group consisting of bulk sweeteners, high intensity sweeteners, flavors, fillers, colouring agents, softeners, emulsifiers, acidulants, antioxidants, cooling agents, warming agents, food acids, or any combination thereof.
Chewing gum ingredients such as bulk sweeteners may be included in the composition either as a part of the chewing gum granules or blended in particulate form with the composition of chewing gum granules and encapsulation delivery system particles, or both. In an embodiment of the invention, the compressible chewing gum composition comprises further particles selected from the group consisting of bulk sweeteners, flavors, high intensity sweeteners, food acids, fillers, or any combination thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum base comprises biodegradable polymers. According to an embodiment of the invention, the gum base may be formed from biodegradable polymers and optionally further gum base ingredients such as fillers and softeners.
Moreover, the invention relates to compressed chewing gum tablet comprising a compressible chewing gum composition according to any of the claims Moreover, the invention relates to a compressed chewing gum tablet comprising i chewing gum granules containing gum base ii particles of one or more encapsulation delivery systems comprising at least one encapsulation material and at least one active ingredient being encapsulated by the encapsulation material, wherein the encapsulation material comprises at least one natural resin.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum consists of one module, such as a one-layered tablet. In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum comprises two or more modules and wherein at least two of the modules vary in composition.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum tablet comprises chewing gum ingredients including sweetener, flavour, softener, and optionally filler. In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum tablet comprises one, two, three, four, five, six, or seven layers, at least one of which being composed of a compressible chewing gum composition according to any of the claims The layers may appear as tablet slice-like layers. The tabletting process for preparing the compressed chewing gum tablet with layers may involve feeding the material e.
At least one layer of the layered compressed chewing gum tablet is composed of a compressible chewing gum composition according to the invention. Such layers may for example be composed of bulk sweeteners, flavors, and additives. In an embodiment of the invention, said chewing gum tablet comprises at least one layer of said compressible chewing gum composition and further comprises one, two, three, four, five, six, or seven layers of gum base free tablet material. As used herein, the term "tablet material" refers to a material, which is substantially free of gum base.
Typically, as used herein the tablet material mainly comprises bulk sweeteners and other chewing gum ingredients in powder form. In an embodiment of the invention, said gum base free tablet material comprises bulk sweeteners. In an embodiment of the invention, the tablet is enclosed by an exterior protective barrier. According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the protective barrier should form a humidity barrier.
In an embodiment of the invention, the exterior protective barrier is a blister pack, can, etc. In an embodiment of the invention, at least one layer of said chewing gum tablet comprises a center- filling. In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum tablet comprises i a first module of compressed chewing gum granules containing gum base, ii a second module of compressed material, and iii a centre filling of liquid, semi-liquid or solid material, said filling being a separate compartment located between said first and second layer and said filling being fully encapsulated within said compressed chewing gum tablet.
In an embodiment of the invention, the compressed tablet is in a form selected from the group consisting of a pellet, a cushion-shaped pellet, a stick, a tablet, a chunk, a pastille, a pill, a ball and a sphere, a figure, a box-shaped product, an edged product, a rounded product or any combination thereof.
In an embodiment of the invention, the compressed chewing gum tablet is coated by a coating selected from the group consisting of hard coatings, soft coatings, film coatings, or any combination thereof.
Furthermore, the invention relates to a method of providing a compressed chewing gum tablet from the compressible chewing gum composition according to any of the claims comprising the step of compressing the compressible chewing gum composition in a tabletting press. In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum tablet is compressed by application of a maximum force in the range of 20 to 80 kN in the tabletting press.
In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum granules are produced by means of cutting during an extrusion process. In an embodiment of the invention, the chewing gum granules are produced by means of particulating a cooled chewing gum or gum base material. Moreover, the invention relates to use of the compressible chewing gum composition according to any of the claims to provide a compressed chewing gum. The invention will be described with reference to the figures where fig.
In the following the compressible chewing gum composition and compressed chewing gum according to the invention are described in more details. The compressible chewing gum composition according to the invention is applied in the manufacturing of compressed chewing gum tablets according to the invention. The chewing gum granules in the compressible chewing gum composition according to the invention comprise at least a gum base portion, and provide generally the masticatory substance mainly imparting the chew characteristics to the final compressed chewing gum product.
In the present context, the terms chewing gum granule and chewing gum particle are used interchangeably with respect to size and shape in the sense that a granule or particle for use in a compression process is regarded to be a relatively small object, which together with other granules or particles may be compressed into a stable chewing gum tablet. A gum base-containing granule of particle may typically be produced substantially into the desired shape or size by means of an extrusion process or alternatively be produced on the basis of a gum base-containing mass which is subsequently separated into particles of a smaller size.
The gum base portion comprises water-insoluble ingredients which are retained in the mouth throughout the chewing period. Conventionally, the gum base portion may merely define the release profile of flavours and sweeteners in the gum product. However, the gum base is also significant in defining the texture of the product, and thus the gum base polymers should be chosen to obtain the desired texture properties. According to the present invention, encapsulation delivery systems, defined here below, are provided and applied in the compressible chewing gum composition and final compressed chewing gum product to control the release of active ingredients including high intensity sweeteners, flavouring agents, pharmaceutical active ingredients, nutraceuticals, food acids, etc.
It has been found that advantageous release profiles of active ingredients from compressed chewing gum may be obtained by encapsulation of the active ingredients in an encapsulation material comprising natural resin.
The encapsulation material and the active ingredient, which is encapsulated by the encapsulation material, are herein referred to in total as an encapsulation delivery system. Particles of the encapsulation delivery system form part of the compressible chewing gum composition according to the invention.
As used in this context, a particle of an encapsulation delivery system is a particle produced from a mixture or mass composed at least of encapsulation material and small active ingredient particles distributed therein in such way that they are encapsulated by the encapsulation material. The particles of encapsulation delivery system material may be produced by separating this mixture or mass into particles. The particles may be produced into a desired shape and size in a batch process or by means of an extrusion process.
Usually, the particles of encapsulation delivery system has a lower number of components than the number of components in the chewing gum granules. The compressible chewing gum composition moreover comprises a water-soluble bulk portion and flavouring agents. The water-soluble bulk portion of which the major part comprises bulk sweetener dissipates with a portion of the flavouring agents over a period of time during chewing of the compressed chewing gum product.
Various locations of the water soluble bulk portion in the final compressed chewing gum product are applicable. The water soluble bulk portion may e.
Moreover, the water soluble bulk portion may e. Turning to the formulation of the insoluble gum base portion of the chewing gum granules, the gum base may typically contain a combination of elastomers, vinyl polymers, elastomer plasticizers, waxes, softeners, fillers and other optional ingredients such as colourants and antioxidants. The composition of gum base formulations can vary substantially depending on the particular product to be prepared and on the desired masticatory and other sensory characteristics of the final product.
Elastomers provide the rubbery, cohesive nature to the gum, which varies depending on this ingredient's chemical structure and how it may be compounded with other ingredients.
Elastomers suitable for use in the gum base and gum of the present invention may include natural or synthetic types. The elastomer may be any water- insoluble polymer known in the art, and includes those gum polymers utilized for chewing gum and bubble gum listed in Food and Drug Administration, CFR, Title 21, Section ,, as "Masticatory Substances of Natural Vegetable Origin" and "Masticatory Substances, Synthetic". Useful natural elastomers include natural rubber such as smoked or liquid latex and guayule, natural gums such as jelutong, lechi caspi, perillo, sorva, massaranduba balata, massaranduba chocolate, nispero, rosidinha, chicle, gutta percha, gutta kataiu, niger gutta, tunu, chilte, chiquibul, gutta hang kang.
Butadiene-styrene type elastomers, or SBR as they may be called, typically are copolymers of from about The ratio of these monomers affects the elasticity of the SBR as evaluated by mooney viscosity. The structure of SBR typically consists of straight chain 1,3 -butadiene copolymerized with phenylethylene styrene and provides the non-linear molecular nature of these elastomers.
Isobutylene-isoprene type elastomers, or butyl as they may be called, have molar percent levels of isoprene ranging from 0. Similar to SBR, as the isoprene: The structure of butyl rubber typically consists of branched 2-methyl-l,3- butadiene isoprene copolymerized with branched 2-methylpropene isobutylene , and, as with SBR, this type of structure is non-linear in nature. Polyisobutylene, or PIB as they may be called, type elastomers are polymers of 2- methylpropene and, as with SBR and butyl, are non-linear in nature.
The low molecular weight elastomers provide soft chewing characteristics to the gum base and still provide the elastic qualities as do the other elastomers. The higher the penetration, the softer the PIB.
Similar to the SBR and butyl, the high molecular weight elastomers provide elasticity the gum. Vinyl polymeric and copolymeric type elastomers provide tack resistance, vary the chew characteristics of gums made from these bases having vinyl polymers and offer hydrophilic properties beneficial to sensory perception of the final gums.
Polymers of vinyl acetate PVAc are branched in nature. The degree of branching is increased when vinyl acetate monomers are copolymerized with vinyl laurate, vinyl stearate, ethylene and the like. The higher the degree of branching, the higher the compatibility when blended or compounded with normal-alkanic and iso-alkanic type waxes.
Presently preferred combinations of synthetic elastomers include, but are not limited to, polyisobutylene and styrene-butadiene, polyisobutylene and polyisoprene, polyisobutylene and isobutylene-isoprene copolymer butyl rubber and a combination of polyisobutylene, styrene-butadiene copolymer and isobutylene isoprene copolymer, and all of the above individual synthetic polymers in admixture with polyvinyl acetate, vinyl acetate-vinyl laurate copolymers, respectively and mixtures thereof.
Elastomer plasticizers vary the firmness of the gum base. Their specificity on elastomer inter-molecular chain breaking plasticizing along with their varying softening points cause varying degrees of finished gum firmness and compatibility when used in base. This may be important when one wants to provide more elastomeric chain exposure to the alkanic chains of the waxes. Elastomer plasticizers suitable for use in the present invention include natural rosin esters often referred to as ester gums.
Such elastomer plasticizers known in the art are methyl, glycerol and pentaerythritol esters ' of rosins and modified rosins, such as hydrogenated, dimerized and polymerized rosins. Examples are glycerol ester of wood and gum rosin, glycerol ester of partially hydrogenated wood and gum rosin, glycerol ester of polymerized wood and gum rosin, glycerol ester of partially dimerized wood and gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, pentaerythritol ester of wood and gum rosin, pentaerythritol esters of partially and fully hydrogenated wood and gum rosin, methyl esters of wood and gum rosins and partially and fully hydrogenated methyl esters of wood and gum rosin.
The elastomer plasticizers used may be of one type or of combinations of more than one type. Typically, the ratios of one to the other are dependent on each respective softening point, the effect on flavour release, and the respective degree of tack they case to the gum. Petroleum waxes aid in the curing of the finished gum made from the gum base as well as improve shelf life and texture.
Wax crystal size influences the release of flavour. Those waxes high in iso-alkanes have a smaller crystal size than those waxes high in normal-alkanes, especially those with normal-alkanes of carbon numbers less than The smaller crystal size allows slower release of flavour since there is more hindrance of the flavour's escape from this wax versus a wax having larger crystal sizes. The compatibility of gum bases made using normal-alkanic waxes is less when compared to gum bases made with iso-alkanic waxes.
Petroleum wax refined paraffin and microcrystalline wax and paraffin wax are composed of mainly straight-chained normal-alkanes and branched iso-alkanes. The ratio of normal- alkanes to iso-alkanes varies. The branched and ring structures are located near the end of the chain for those waxes that are predominantly normal-alkanic. The iso-alkanic waxes typically have carbon lengths that are predominantly greater than C The branched chains and ring structures are located randomly along the carbon chain in those waxes that are predominantly iso-alkanic.
Synthetic waxes are produced by means that are atypical for petroleum wax production and are thus not considered petroleum wax. The synthetic waxes may include waxes containing branched alkanes and copolymerized with monomers such as, but not limited to, propylene, polyethylene, and Fischer Tropsch type waxes.
Polyethylene wax is a synthetic wax containing alkane units of varying lengths having attached thereto ethylene monomers. The natural waxes may include rice bran wax, bee's wax, carnauba wax or candelilla wax. The waxes may be used alone or in any combination.
The selection of softeners has an influence on the softness of the gum base. Softeners modify the texture, cause the hydrophobic and hydrophilic components of the base to be miscible, and may further plasticize the synthetic elastomers of the gum base. The emulsifiers, which belong to the group of softeners, provide the gum base with water-binding properties, which confer to the gum base a pleasant smooth surface and reduce its adhesive properties. Softeners suitable for use in the gum base include triglycerides of non-hydrogenated, partially hydrogenated and fully hydrogenated vegetable oils and tallow, cocoa butter and degreased cocoa powder and in addition to these the emulsifiers.
The group of triglycerides includes cottonseed, palm, palm kernel, coconut, safflower, rapeseed, sunflower, tallow, soybean, cocoa butter, medium-chained triglycerides and the like. The caproic, caprylic, capric, myristic, lauric and palmitic fatty acids of the triglycerides tend to plasticize the synthetic elastomers more than triglycerides containing predominantly stearic fatty acid. To the group of emulsifiers belong the monoglycerides, diglycerides, acetylated mono and diglycerides, distilled mono- and diglycerides, glycerol monostearate, propylene glycol monostearate, Na-, K-, Mg- and Ca-stearates, glycerol triacetate, fatty acid monoglycerides e.
The softeners including the emulsifiers may be used alone or at least two or more in combination. Fillers used in gum base modify the texture of the gum base and aid in processing. Particle size has an effect on cohesiveness, density and processing characteristics of the gum base and its compounding.
The smaller the particle size, the more dense and cohesive the final gum base. Also, by selecting fillers based on their particle size distribution, initial mass compounding may be varied, thus allowing alteration of the compounding characteristics of the initial mass during gum base processing and ultimately the final chew characteristics of gums made from these gum bases. Fillers suitable for use in the gum base include magnesium and calcium carbonate, ground limestone and silicate types such as magnesium and aluminum silicate, kaolin and clay, aluminium oxide, silicium oxide, talc, as well as titanium oxide, mono-, di- and tricalcium phosphate, sodium sulphate, cellulose polymers such as ethyl, methyl and wood or mixtures thereof.
Talc filler may be used in the gum base and gum of the present invention that may come in contact with or employ acid flavours or provide an acidic environment needed to prevent degradation of an artificial sweetener by reacting with calcium carbonate type fillers.
Mean particle size for calcium carbonate and talc fillers typically range from about 0. The fillers may also include natural organic fibres such as fruit vegetable fibres, grain, rice, cellulose and combinations thereof. Antioxidants prolong shelf life and storage of gum base, finished gum or their respective components including fats and flavour oils. Antioxidants suitable for use in gum base include butylated hydroxyanisole BHA , butylated hydroxytoluene BHT , betacarotenes, tocopherols, acidulants such as Vitamin C, propyl gallate, other synthetic and natural types or mixtures thereof.
Flavourants and colourants impart characteristics or remove or mask undesired characteristics. If desired, conventional elastomers or resins may be supplemented or substituted by biodegradable polymers. Biodegradable polymers that may be used in the chewing gum of the present invention may be homopolymers, copolymers or terpolymers, including graft and block polymers.
Useful biodegradable polymers which may be applied as gum base polymers in the chewing gum of the present invention may generally be prepared by step-growth polymerization of di-, tri- or higher-functional alcohols or esters thereof with di-, tri- or higher-functional aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acids or esters thereof. Likewise, also hydroxy acids or anhydrides and halides of polyfunctional carboxylic acids may be used as monomers. The polymerization may involve direct polyesterification or transesterification and may be catalyzed.
The usually preferred polyfunctional alcohols contain 2 to carbon atoms as for instance polyglycols and polyglycerols. In the polymerization of a gum base polymer for use in the chewing gum of the present invention, some applicable examples of alcohols, which may be employed as such or as derivatives thereof, include polyols such as ethylene glycol, 1,2- propanediol, 1,3 -propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1 ,6-hexanediol, diethylene glycol, 1,4-cyclohexanediol, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, neopentyl glycol, glycerol, trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.
Suitable examples of environmentally or biologically degradable chewing gum base polymers, which may be applied in accordance with the gum base of the present invention, include degradable. Polyesters which may be applied in accordance with the gum base of the present invention may e.
Further polymers which may be used in the gum base according to embodiments of the invention comprise: The prolamine may e. Examples of such protein-based compounds include but are not limited to prolamine, zein, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten, gliadin, glutenin and combinations thereof. Such suitable biodegradable gum base polymers include polyesters, polycarbonates, polyesteramides, polyesterurethanes, polyamides, prolamine, and combinations thereof.
Polycarbonates may typically be co-polymerised with polyesters. Some typically preferred cyclic carbonates, which may be used as starting material, may e. In some embodiments, suitable polyesteramides can be constructed from monomers of the following groups: In the case where the polymer mixture is based extensively on thermoplastic starch and an aromatic polyester, an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester, or a polyesteramide, it may be advantageous to add an aliphatic polyester or copolyester, such as polycaprolactone, for example, as a further component.
As an example of this there may be mentioned a polymer mixture consisting of thermoplastic starch, at least one polyethylene terephthalate PET or a polyalkylene terephthalate, and polycaprolactone. Suitable polyesters may be obtained through polycondensation polymerisation or ring-opening polymerisation reactions. Some preferred polyesters include those polymerised from at least one carboxylic acid and at least one aliphatic di- or polyfunctional alcohols.
The carboxylic acids may include aromatic dicarboxylic acids and aliphatic di- or polyfuncional carboxylic acids. In some preferred embodiments, the majority of the carboxylic acids are aliphatic. Some of the preferred polyesters according to the invention may e. Use of branched monomers suppresses the crystallinity of the polyester polymers. Mixing of dissimilar monomer units along the chain also suppresses crystallinity.
Also the adding of long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids or aromatic monocarboxylic acids may be used to control the degree of branching in the polymer and conversely multifunctional monomers are sometimes used to create branching. Moreover, following the polymerization monofunctional compounds may be used to end cap the free hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Examples of aliphatic di- or polyfunctional carboxylic acids, which may be applied as monomers of suitable polyesters include oxalic, malonic, citric, succinic, malic, tartaric, fumaric, maleic, glutaric, glutamic, adipic, glucaric, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, sebacic, dodecanedioic acid, etc.
Likewise, specific examples of aromatic polyfunctional carboxylic acids may be terephthalic, isophthalic, phthalic, trimellitic, pyromellitic and naphthalene 1,4-, 2,3-, 2,6-dicarboxylic acids and the like. Some preferred polyesters are disclosed in CA, hereby included by reference. In a preferred embodiment, aliphatic dicarboxylic acids applied in the polyesters are selected from aliphatic dicarboxylic acids having from 4 to 12 carbons, such as succinic acid, glutaric acid, 2-methylglutaric acid, 3-methylglutaric acid, 2,2- dimethylglutaric acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid and sebacic acid, higher homologues and stereoisomers and mixtures thereof.
Preferred aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in this embodiment are succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, azelaic acid and sebacic acid, and mixtures thereof. In an embodiment, aromatic dicarboxylic acids applied in the polyesters contain two carboxyl groups which are bound to one aromatic system. Preferably, the aromatic system is carboaromatic, such as phenyl or naphthyl. In the case of polynuclear aromatics, the two carboxyl groups may be bound to the same ring or different rings.
The aromatic system can also have one or more alkyl groups, for example methyl groups. The aromatic dicarboxylic acid is then generally selected from aromatic dicarboxylic acids having from 8 to 12 carbons, such as phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 1,5- and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid.
Preferred aromatic dicarboxylic acids in this embodiment are terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid and phthalic acid and mixtures thereof. Furthermore, some usually preferred polyfunctional alcohols suitable for preparing advantageous polyesters according to the invention contain 2 to carbon atoms as for instance polyglycols and poly glycerols.
Suitable examples of alcohols which may be employed in the polymerization process as such or as derivatives thereof include polyols such as ethylene glycol, 1 ,2-propanediol, 1,3 -propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, diethylene glycol, 1,4-cyclohexanediol, 1,4- cyclohexanedimethanol, neopentyl glycol, glycerol, trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.
For the purpose of illustration and not limitation, some examples of alcohol derivatives include triacetin, glycerol palmitate, glycerol sebacate, glycerol adipate, tripropionin, etc. Additionally, with regard to polyesters polymerized from alcohols or derivatives thereof and carboxylic acids or derivatives thereof, chain-stoppers sometimes used are monofunctional compounds.
They are preferably either monohydroxy alcohols containing carbon atoms or monocarboxylic acids containing carbon atoms. General examples are medium or long-chain fatty alcohols or acids, and specific examples include monohydroxy alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, butanol, hexanol, octanol, etc. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the polyesters can for example include copolymers containing any combination of the monomers lactic acid, lactide, glycolic acid, glycolide, citric acid, adipic acid, caprolactone, ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, propylene oxide, propylene glycol and combinations thereof.
Examples of suitable polyesters obtainable by ring-opening polymerization include polyesters comprising combinations of cyclic monomers including the following:. Some examples of the resulting polyester gum base polymers include poly L- lactide-co-trimethylenecarbonate ; poly L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone ; poly D, L-lactide-co-trimethylenecarbonate ; poly D 5 L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone ; poly meso-lactide-co-trimethylenecarbonate ; poly mesolactide-co-epsilon- caprolactone ; poly glycolide-cotrimethylenecarbonate ; poly glycolide-co-epsilon- caprolactone , etc.
In an embodiment, the polyesters may be obtained by the reaction between at least one dimer acid and at least one glycol or alcohol. Such glycols can include, for example, glycerin, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, poly ethylene glycol , poly propylene glycol , poly ethylene glycol-co-propylene glycol , while such alcohols can include, for example, methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol, and such dimer acids can include, for example, adipic acid and citric acid, etc.
Some specific examples of suitable polyesters include poly lactic acid , polylactide, poly glycolic acid , polyglycolide, poly citric acid , polycaprolactone, polyhydroxyalkanoate, and combinations thereof. Some suitable prolamines include zein, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten, gliadin, glutenin and combinations thereof. Moreover, blends of prolamine with polyester such as those disclosed in US 6,,, hereby included by reference, may be useful in chewing gum according to the invention.
In the water-soluble portion of the chewing gum, the ingredients may comprise softeners, sweeteners, high intensity sweeteners, flavouring agents, acidulants, fillers, antioxidants, and other components that provide desired attributes.
Softeners typically constitute from about 0. The bulking agents generally comprise from about 5 percent to about 90 percent, preferably from about 20 percent to about 80 percent of the chewing gum.
High-intensity sweeteners in gum typically may range from about 0. A flavouring agent may be present in the chewing gum in an amount within the range of from about 0. The softeners are added to the chewing gum in order to optimize the chewability and mouth feel of the gum.
Softeners contemplated for use in the gum include glycerin, modified lecithin and combinations thereof. Further aqueous sweetener solutions such as those containing sorbitol, hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, corn syrup and combinations thereof may be used as softeners.
The bulk sweeteners include both sugar and sugarless components. The sweeteners often fill the role of bulking agents in the gum. The sweeteners are improving juiciness of the gum and are supporting the flavour profile of the gum.
Sugar sweeteners generally include, but are not limited to, saccharide-containing components commonly known in the chewing gum art, such as sucrose, dextrose, maltose, saccharose, lactose, sorbose, dextrin, trehalose, D-tagatose, dried invert sugar, fructose, levulose, galactose, corn syrup solids, glucose syrup, hydrogenated glucose syrup, and the like, alone or in combination. The sugar sweeteners can be used in combination with sugarless sweeteners. Sugarless sweeteners may also be applied as an alternative to sugar sweeteners to provide sugar-free chewing gum.
Generally, sugarless sweeteners include components with sweetening characteristics but which are devoid of the commonly known sugars and comprise, but are not limited to, sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, hydrogenated starch hydrolyzates, maltitol, isomalt, erythritol, lactitol and the like, alone or in combination.
Depending on the particular sweetness release profile and shelf-life stability needed, bulk sweeteners can also be used in combination high-intensity sweeteners. Preferred high intensity sweeteners include, but are not limited to sucralose, aspartame, salts of acesulfame, alitame, saccharin and its salts, cyclamic acid and its salts, cyclamate, glycyrrhizin, dihydrochalcones, thaumatin, monellin, sterioside and the like, alone or in combination.
In order to provide longer-lasting sweetness and flavour perception, it may be desirable to encapsulate or otherwise control the release of at least a portion of the artificial sweetener. Such techniques as wet granulation, wax granulation, spray drying, spray chilling, fluid bed coating, coascervation, encapsulation in yeast cells and fibre extrusion may be used to achieve the desired release characteristics.
According to the invention, an advantageous encapsulation of high intensity sweeteners is obtained by the encapsulation delivery systems in which natural resins form part of the encapsulation material.
Usage level of the artificial sweetener will vary greatly and will depend on such factors as potency of the sweetener, rate of release, desired sweetness of the product, level and type of flavour used and cost considerations.
Thus, the active level of artificial sweetener may vary from 0. When carriers used for encapsulation are included, the usage level of the encapsulated sweetener will be proportionally higher. Additionally, the softener may also provide additional sweetness, if such softeners as aqueous sugar or alditol are used.
If a low calorie gum is desired, a low caloric bulking agent can be used. However, other low calorie-bulking agents can be used. The chewing gum tablets provided herein may contain aroma agents and flavouring agents including natural and synthetic flavourings e. Examples of liquid and powdered flavourings include coconut, coffee, chocolate, vanilla, grape fruit, orange, lime, menthol, liquorice, caramel aroma, honey aroma, peanut, walnut, cashew, hazelnut, almonds, pineapple, strawberry, raspberry, tropical fruits, cherries, cinnamon, peppermint, wintergreen, spearmint, eucalyptus, and mint, fruit essence such as from apple, pear, peach, strawberry, apricot, raspberry, cherry, pineapple, and plum essence.
The essential oils include peppermint, spearmint, menthol, eucalyptus, clove oil, bay oil, anise, thyme, cedar leaf oil, nutmeg, and oils of the fruits e. The chewing gum flavour may be a natural flavouring agent, which is freeze-dried, preferably in the form of a powder, slices or pieces of combinations thereof. The particle size may be less than 3 mm, preferably less than 2 mm, more preferably less than 1 mm, calculated as the longest dimension of the particle.
Preferred natural flavouring agents include seeds from a fruit e. Various synthetic flavours, such as mixed fruit flavours may also be used in the present chewing gum centres. The aroma agent may be used in quantities smaller than those conventionally used. Also various acids are used typically in combination with fruit flavours, such as adipinic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, phosphoric acid and glutaric acid or salts thereof.
They are typically added in amounts of 0. In the context of the present invention, the term "food acid" pertains to acids that are safe to use in food products. The speed is from 1, lollipops per minute to 2, lollipops per minute depending on the diameter of the lollipop. To prevent damages during sudden stops on the production line, the FlexFormer XHC has an automatic run empty machine feature.
This means, when the machine is stopped, the sugar rope will be cut and the machine will be automatically emptied. The latest safety feature includes continuous monitoring of the temperature in the forming set, the monitoring of the motor consumption, and monitoring of the systems pressure so that when the temperature gets too high or too low, the machine will automatically stop to prevent damage.
Bosch Packaging Technology will showcase its testing equipment for jelly production, including medicated and functional gummies, such as cough lozenges, omega-3 and mineral-enriched products, and supplemented jellies. It will display its laboratory depositor, which can test new products and tested recipes on an industrial scale. The lab depositor will be equipped with a removable spraying unit for starchless automatic depositing and for processing and depositing of jelly candies it will show its upgraded Rapidsolver BLK BR.
Its portfolio includes raw material weighing and dosing, primary, secondary and end-of-line packaging. The GML03 lab can test jelly in smaller volumes for experimental or seasonal product sampling. It means manufacturers can upgrade current products and develop new recipes without disrupting their regular production processes.
With an exchangeable pump system and servo-controlled pistons, the lab depositor can produce jellies, hard candies, toffees, fondant and other confectionery masses, including single, one shot, striped and striped with filling. CEO Thomas Cord will present its latest development in the area of hermetically sealed fold wrapping; the RCB-HS wrapping head machine, suitable for small chocolates, combining a hermetically sealed pack style with a traditional fold wrap appearance.
The machine produces the fold wrap in one wrapping head and hot-seals the pack circumferentially. Another of its exhibits is the F-Series platform for packaging chocolate, wafers and chewing gum in flow packs. Intelligent process engineering for the seal modules means fewer rejects when stopping and starting the packaging machine.
The F-Series detects the existing product supply in the feeder, adjusting cycle speed and seal pressure to it. LoeschPack is rounding off its exhibition at ProSweets with a presentation on all aspects of chewing gum including its automated technology for feeding chewing gum slabs into high-performance packaging systems.
Popping crystals aim to be as big as gummies for nutrient delivery
Chewing Gum Removal Machines - Now Remove Chewing Gum from Concrete, Daimer Presents the Best Chewing Gum Removal Cleaners and Machines with steel brushes and extraction while other brands offer no vacuum capability to . cleaning applications, such as auto detailing; cleaning and sanitizing knobs, . Big Brands . Its upgraded Rapidsolver BLK BR for dissolving jelly masses, features a patent-pending heat recovery lines for chocolate, chewing gum, and confectionery (G/H in hall ). including an automatic starch gate, modular depositor frame and high speed turntable demolding. Smoke cessation; developed private label Nicotine gum. Products Developed / Reformulated by Medri – CPC: OTC Category: • Antacid, fast melt tablet and gum.