We'll take a look at two compounds, CBD vs THC, and compare them on a who consume large amounts of THC; the effect on the brain is more profound for. CBD is a compound in cannabis mostly associated with therapeutic effects. We take a look at how it impacts the brain. Which receptors are affected, and what parts of the brain are involved, differs My own research has demonstrated the positive effects of stimulation of the Both CBD and THC are capable of interacting with this complex variety of proteins.
brain the cbd vs thc on effects
But there is also evidence, mainly from animal studies and in vitro experiments, that CBD may have neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic pain-relieving properties, and potential therapeutic value in the treatment of motivational disorders like depression, anxiety, and addiction.
The brain contains large numbers of highly specialized cells called neurons. Each neuron connects to many others through structures called synapses. These are sites where one neuron communicates to another by releasing chemical messengers known as neurotransmitters Figure 1. If a neuron contains receptors that match a particular neurotransmitter, then it can respond directly to that transmitter.
All neurons contain multiple neurotransmitter receptors, allowing them to respond to some neurotransmitters but not others. Brain receptors are not only sensitive to neurotransmitters produced naturally within the brain, like dopamine or serotonin, but also chemical messengers produced outside the body, such as plant cannabinoids like THC or CBD. Once they arrive, these plant-derived compounds can influence brain activity by interacting with receptors on neurons.
Instead, it affects signaling through CB1 and CB2 receptors indirectly. CBD also influences many non-cannabinoid receptor systems in the brain, interacting with receptors sensitive to a variety of drugs and neurotransmitters Figure 2.
These include opioid receptors, known for their role in pain regulation. Opioid receptors are the key targets of pharmaceutical pain killers and drugs of abuse such as morphine, heroin, and fentanyl. CBD can also interact with dopamine receptors, which play a crucial role in regulating many aspects of behavior and cognition, including motivation and reward-seeking behavior.
Animal studies have demonstrated that CBD directly activates multiple serotonin receptors in the brain. These interactions have been implicated in its ability to reduce drug-seeking behavior. Professor Roger Pertwee, an English pharmacologist renowned for his research on cannabinoids, spoke with Leafly about this aspect of CBD biology. Given that these possibilities come mainly from animal studies, more research will be needed before we can think seriously about human applications.
But that complexity may be the key to its promise as a therapeutic agent. Motivational disorders like addiction and anxiety are themselves highly complex; they arise from incompletely understood causes that span multiple receptor systems and neural networks in the brain.
CBD week has arrived! Keep up the good work Nick. For a full list of CBD suppliers than go here Naturalcbdusa.
An incredibly detailed and authoritative article on CBD. Looking forward to reading more articles for CBD Week. CBD Week is a great idea and I hope you explore other topics in a similar fashion. No Hoosier should have to leave their home, their family, their friends to obtain a life changing medication. Try to stick with taking a dose, then waiting to be genuinely mindful of the effect before taking more — this will prevent you from raising your tolerance and will allow you to figure out what the right dose for you is.
As we have already mentioned, it is THC which is responsible for the classic marijuana high. It also mimics the effects of anandamide, which is why it can be used to relieve symptoms such as pain and nausea. One of the primary ways that THC affects the brain is by triggering dopamine release. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter involved in the reward system of the brain. It influences our food preferences, sexual attraction, and drug-seeking behavior; basically, anything which makes us feel good!
Unfortunately, in some people, this can lead to dependence and is likely to be at the root of issues such as marijuana use disorder. In addition to this, THC affects many different regions of the brain.
In the brain stem, it influences the vomiting reflex and perception of pain. In the basal ganglia and cerebellum, it affects motor control and coordination, which is why you may become clumsier when you are high. In the hypothalamus, THC affects appetite regulation munchies, anyone? In the hippocampus, THC can affect memory and cognitive function , one of the most documented adverse effects of cannabis. The number of neurons in the hippocampus naturally decreases with age, and regular marijuana users may suffer from a loss of neurons equivalent to that of a much older person.
This effect is more pronounced in people who start smoking weed at a young age, or whose mothers used it during pregnancy. Another well-known ill effect of cannabis is its ability to induce anxiety and paranoia.
This is due to its influence on the amygdala, the fear center of the brain. Although in high doses, THC can cause these undesirable effects, in lower doses it may actually reduce them. This anti-anxiety effect is boosted further by the addition of another cannabinoid, CBD. However, what it does do is change the way THC works at these sites.
CBD is thought to moderate the action of THC and go some way towards balancing out its psychoactive properties. CBD also influences anandamide levels, increasing the beneficial effects of this important endocannabinoid. CBD also works outside of the endocannabinoid system. It is a powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, and as such can protect neurons against damage. Another beneficial effect of CBD on the brain is its ability to prevent seizures. One way in which it does this is by reducing the hyperactivity of neurons, which is known to trigger epileptic fits.
Research has shown that CBD is an effective anticonvulsant and also increases the efficacy of certain anticonvulsant medications. And the positive attributes of CBD do not end there. It is reported to have antidepressant, anti-anxiety, and antipsychotic properties, meaning that it could be used to relieve a wide range of emotional disorders. For example, nonpsychotropic cannabinoids can be used as a very effective anti-inflammatory.
It is clear that cannabinoids can affect pain transmission and, specifically, that cannabinoids interact with the brain's endogenous opioid system and may affect dopamine transmission. Most cannabinoids are lipophilic fat soluble compounds that are easily stored in fat, thus yielding a long elimination half-life relative to other recreational drugs.
The THC molecule, and related compounds, are usually detectable in drug tests from 3 days up to 10 days according to Redwood Laboratories; long-term users can produce positive tests for two to three months after ceasing cannabis use see drug test.
No fatal overdoses with cannabis use have been reported. THC , the principal psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, has an extremely low toxicity and the amount that can enter the body through the consumption of cannabis plants poses no threat of death.
It is important though to note that cannabinoids and other molecules present in cannabis can alter the metabolism of other drugs, especially due to competition for clearing metabolic pathways such as cytochromes CYP ,  thus leading to drug toxicities by medications that the person consuming cannabis may be taking. A study found that while tobacco and cannabis smoke are quite similar, cannabis smoke contained higher amounts of ammonia , hydrogen cyanide , and nitrogen oxides , but lower levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs.
Cannabis smoke contains thousands of organic and inorganic chemical compounds. This tar is chemically similar to that found in tobacco smoke or cigars. Other observations include possible increased risk from each cigarette; lack of research on the effect of cannabis smoke alone; low rate of addiction compared to tobacco; and episodic nature of cannabis use compared to steady frequent smoking of tobacco.
Further, he notes that other studies have failed to connect cannabis with lung cancer, and accuses the BLF of "scaremongering over cannabis". When smoked, the short-term effects of cannabis manifest within seconds and are fully apparent within a few minutes,  typically lasting for 1—3 hours, varying by the person and the strain of cannabis.
The psychoactive effects of cannabis, known as a " high ", are subjective and vary among persons and the method of use. When THC enters the blood stream and reaches the brain, it binds to cannabinoid receptors. The endogenous ligand of these receptors is anandamide , the effects of which THC emulates. This agonism of the cannabinoid receptors results in changes in the levels of various neurotransmitters, especially dopamine and norepinephrine ; neurotransmitters which are closely associated with the acute effects of cannabis ingestion, such as euphoria and anxiety.
Abstract or philosophical thinking, disruption of linear memory and paranoia or anxiety are also typical. Anxiety is the most commonly reported side effect of smoking marijuana. Cannabidiol CBD , another cannabinoid found in cannabis in varying amounts, has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of THC, including anxiety, that some consumers experience. Cannabis produces many other subjective and highly tangible effects, such as increased enjoyment of food taste and aroma, and marked distortions in the perception of time and space where experiencing a "rush" of ideas from long-term memory can create the subjective impression of long elapsed time, while in reality only a short time has passed.
In some cases, cannabis can lead to dissociative states such as depersonalization   and derealization. Any episode of acute psychosis that accompanies cannabis use usually abates after 6 hours, but in rare instances, heavy users may find the symptoms continuing for many days.
While psychoactive drugs are typically categorized as stimulant , depressant , or hallucinogen , cannabis exhibits a mix of all of them, perhaps leaning more towards hallucinogenic or psychedelic properties, though with other effects quite pronounced. THC is considered the primary active component of the cannabis plant.
Scientific studies have suggested that other cannabinoids like CBD may also play a significant role in its psychoactive effects. Electroencephalography or EEG shows somewhat more persistent alpha waves of slightly lower frequency than usual. Peak levels of cannabis-associated intoxication occur approximately 30 minutes after smoking it and last for several hours. The total short-term duration of cannabis use when smoked depends on the potency, method of smoking — e.
Peak levels of intoxication typically last an average of three to four hours. When taken orally in the form of capsules, food or drink , the psychoactive effects take longer to manifest and generally last longer, typically lasting for an average of four to ten hours after consumption.
Also, oral ingestion use eliminates the need to inhale toxic combustion products created by smoking and therefore negates the risk of respiratory harm associated with cannabis smoking. The areas of the brain where cannabinoid receptors are most prevalent are consistent with the behavioral effects produced by cannabinoids. Brain regions in which cannabinoid receptors are very abundant are the basal ganglia , associated with movement control; the cerebellum , associated with body movement coordination; the hippocampus , associated with learning , memory, and stress control; the cerebral cortex , associated with higher cognitive functions; and the nucleus accumbens , regarded as the reward center of the brain.
Other regions where cannabinoid receptors are moderately concentrated are the hypothalamus , which regulates homeostatic functions; the amygdala , associated with emotional responses and fears ; the spinal cord , associated with peripheral sensations like pain; the brain stem , associated with sleep , arousal , and motor control; and the nucleus of the solitary tract , associated with visceral sensations like nausea and vomiting.
Experiments on animal and human tissue have demonstrated a disruption of short-term memory formation,  which is consistent with the abundance of C receptors on the hippocampus, the region of the brain most closely associated with memory. Cannabinoids inhibit the release of several neurotransmitters in the hippocampus such as acetylcholine , norepinephrine , and glutamate , resulting in a decrease in neuronal activity in that area. Compared to currently approved drugs prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, THC is a considerably superior inhibitor of A aggregation, and this study provides a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism through which cannabinoid molecules may impact the progression of this debilitating disease.
While several studies have shown increased risk associated with cannabis use by drivers, other studies have not found increased risk. In Cannabis and driving: Where they can compensate, they do A meta-analysis found that acute cannabis use increased the risk of an automobile crash. In the largest and most precisely controlled study of its kind carried out by the U.
Likewise better controlled studies have found lower or no elevated crash risk estimates". Short-term one to two hours effects on the cardiovascular system can include increased heart rate, dilation of blood vessels, and fluctuations in blood pressure. Indeed, marijuana may be a much more common cause of myocardial infarction than is generally recognized. In day-to-day practice, a history of marijuana use is often not sought by many practitioners, and even when sought, the patient's response is not always truthful".
A analysis of 3, myocardial infarction survivors over an year period showed "no statistically significant association between marijuana use and mortality". A study by the National Institutes of Health Biomedical Research Centre in Baltimore found that heavy, chronic smoking of marijuana joints per week changed blood proteins associated with heart disease and stroke. A study by researchers at Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center , Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard School of Public Health found that a middle-age person's risk of heart attack rises nearly fivefold in the first hour after smoking marijuana, "roughly the same risk seen within an hour of sexual activity".
Cannabis arteritis is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. There were about 50 confirmed cases from to , all of which occurred in Europe. A confounding factor in cannabis research is the prevalent usage of other recreational drugs, especially alcohol and nicotine.
Some critics question whether agencies doing the research make an honest effort to present an accurate, unbiased summary of the evidence, or whether they "cherry-pick" their data to please funding sources which may include the tobacco industry or governments dependent on cigarette tax revenue; others caution that the raw data, and not the final conclusions, are what should be examined. The Australian National Household Survey of  showed that cannabis in Australia is rarely used without other drugs.
Evidence from a controlled experimental study undertaken by Lukas and Orozco  suggests that alcohol causes THC to be absorbed more rapidly into the blood plasma of the user. Data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing  found that three-quarters of recent cannabis users reported using alcohol when cannabis was not available, this suggests that the two are substitutes. Studies on cannabis and memory are hindered by small sample sizes, confounding drug use, and other factors.
In a study looking at neuropsychological performance in long-term cannabis users, researchers found "some cognitive deficits appear detectable at least 7 days after heavy cannabis use but appear reversible and related to recent cannabis exposure rather than irreversible and related to cumulative lifetime use".
From neuropsychological tests, Pope found that chronic cannabis users showed difficulties, with verbal memory in particular, for "at least a week or two" after they stopped smoking. Within 28 days, memory problems vanished and the subjects "were no longer distinguishable from the comparison group". Their findings were published in the July issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. Researchers looked at data from 15 previously published controlled studies involving long-term cannabis users and nonusers.
The results showed long-term cannabis use was only marginally harmful on the memory and learning. Other functions such as reaction time, attention, language, reasoning ability, perceptual and motor skills were unaffected. The observed effects on memory and learning, they said, showed long-term cannabis use caused "selective memory defects", but that the impact was "of a very small magnitude". The feeling of increased appetite following the use of cannabis has been documented for hundreds of years,  and is known colloquially as "the munchies" in the English-speaking world.
Clinical studies and survey data have found that cannabis increases food enjoyment and interest in food. Endogenous cannabinoids "endocannabinoids" were discovered in cow's milk and soft cheeses. Most microorganisms found in cannabis only affect plants and not humans, but some microorganisms, especially those that proliferate when the herb is not correctly dried and stored, can be harmful to humans. Some users may store marijuana in an airtight bag or jar in a refrigerator to prevent fungal and bacterial growth.
CBD and THC Effects on the Brain
What has similar chemical make-ups but different structures? CBD and THC. In the video below, learn more about how THC. The unique effects of CBD in the brain are key to its immense healing potential. In this THC attaches itself to both CB1 and CB2 receptors. If you didn't already know — CBD and THC have the exact same that are sent to the brain, which results in the the psychoactive effects of.