Typhoid VaccineWhat Is Typhoid Vaccine, Live? Typhoid Vaccine, Live Side Effects. Typhoid Vaccine, Live Interactions. Typhoid Vaccine, Live Dosage. Copyright Cerner Multum, Inc.
Typhoid Vaccine, Live - Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions - Drugs - Everyday Health
Commercially available in US as an oral live, attenuated vaccine typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a; Vivotif and as a parenteral inactivated Vi polysaccharide vaccine typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine; Typhim Vi. Prevention of typhoid fever in US travelers planning to visit areas with a recognized risk of exposure to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.
Prevention of typhoid fever in individuals with intimate exposure e. Prevention of typhoid fever in laboratory personnel with frequent contact with Salmonella Typhi bacilli. Typhoid fever is a potentially severe and occasionally life-threatening, febrile, enteric illness caused by Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid fever is uncommon in the US, but endemic in many less well-developed areas of the world that have poor sanitation and primitive water systems. When vaccination against typhoid fever indicated, either typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a or typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine can be used unless contraindicated.
Efficacy of typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a and typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine appear to be comparable when administered as recommended; neither vaccine is expected to provide protection against typhoid fever in all vaccine recipients.
Typhoid vaccines will not provide protection against S. Typhoid vaccines are not used for treatment of typhoid fever and should not be used in individuals with acute Salmonella Typhi infection or in chronic typhoid carriers. There is no evidence to support use of typhoid vaccine to control common source outbreaks or disease following natural disasters or in individuals attending rural summer camps.
Travelers to areas with a recognized risk of exposure to Salmonella Typhi should be vaccinated against typhoid fever. CDC recommends typhoid vaccination for travelers to many Asian, African, and Latin American countries, but no longer recommends typhoid vaccination for travelers to certain Eastern European and certain Asian countries. Vaccination against typhoid fever and other precautions safe food and water precautions, frequent handwashing are especially important for travelers to high-risk areas because fluoroquinolone-resistant and multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi have become common or are reported with increasing frequency in many regions of the world e.
The most recent information regarding geographic areas with a recognized risk of typhoid fever and additional information on vaccination and other precautions for prevention of typhoid fever are available from CDC at and. Close contacts of chronic typhoid carriers with intimate exposure e. Laboratory personnel routinely exposed to cultures of Salmonella Typhi or specimens containing the bacilli or who work in laboratory environments where these cultures or specimens are routinely handled should be vaccinated against typhoid fever.
Swallow whole immediately after placement in mouth; do not chew. Do not administer to individuals with acute GI illness or persistent diarrhea or vomiting. Should appear clear and colorless; discard if turbid or contains particulates. IM injections preferably should be made into the deltoid area in adults and into the deltoid or anterolateral thigh in children.
Syncope vasovagal or vasodepressor reaction; fainting may occur following vaccination; such reactions occur most frequently in adolescents and young adults. If multiple vaccines are administered during a single health-care visit, give each parenteral vaccine using different syringe and different injection site.
Primary immunization consists of 4 doses. Give first dose on a selected date; give second, third, and fourth doses every other day after first dose over a 1-week period e. Duration of response and optimum booster schedule not established. Data not available regarding use as a booster in individuals previously vaccinated with typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine or any other typhoid vaccine. Primary immunization consists of a single mcg dose. Data not available regarding use as a booster in individuals previously vaccinated with typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a or any other typhoid vaccine.
Typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a: Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine or enteric-coated capsule. Typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine: Hypersensitivity to any ingredient in the formulation. Contains live, attenuated bacteria and should not be used in individuals with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, including HIV-infected individuals and those receiving immunosuppressive therapy. May be used in individuals with altered immunocompetence, including HIV-infected patients; those who are severely immunocompromised because of congenital immunodeficiency, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, generalized malignancy, or therapy with alkylating agents, antimetabolites, radiation, or corticosteroids; patients with solid organ transplants or chronic immunosuppressive therapy; or patients with asplenia, renal failure, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or alcoholic cirrhosis.
ACIP states that recommendations concerning use of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine in individuals with altered immunocompetence are the same as those for individuals who are not immunocompromised. Epinephrine and other appropriate agents should be readily available in case anaphylaxis or other serious allergic reaction occurs. Contains live, attenuated bacteria and the vaccine strain may be shed transiently in the stool of vaccinees. Decision whether to administer or delay vaccination in an individual with a current or recent febrile illness depends largely on the severity of symptoms and etiology of the illness.
Manufacturer states do not administer to individuals with acute febrile illness or acute GI illness e. Manufacturer states may be deferred in individuals with acute infection or febrile illness, unless withholding the vaccine poses greater risk. ACIP states that minor acute illness, such as mild upper respiratory tract infection with or without fever generally does not preclude vaccination, but defer vaccination in individuals with moderate or severe acute illness with or without fever until they have recovered from the acute phase of the illness.
Typhoid vaccines may not protect all vaccine recipients against typhoid fever. Regardless of vaccination status, take precautions against exposure to Salmonella Typhi e. It is essential that all 4 doses be administered as recommended.
Will not provide protection against Salmonella Paratyphi or any Salmonella other than Salmonella Typhi and will not provide protection against other bacteria that cause enteric disease. Not used for treatment of typhoid fever. No evidence to support use of typhoid vaccine to control common source outbreaks or disease following natural disasters or in individuals attending rural summer camps. Duration of protection after primary immunization with typhoid vaccines and need for revaccination or subsequent doses not fully determined.
Some evidence suggests that protection against typhoid fever persists for at least 5 years possibly 7 years after completion of 4-dose vaccination series. Limited data indicate that antibody titers remain elevated for at least 12 months after a single dose in children 5—15 years of age residing in typhoid-endemic areas and for at least 36 months in healthy US adults.
Improper storage or handling of vaccines may reduce vaccine potency resulting in reduced or inadequate immune response in vaccinees. Inspect all vaccines upon delivery and monitor during storage to ensure that the appropriate temperature is maintained. Not adversely affected by elevated temperatures e. May be preferred in situations in which continuous refrigeration cannot be ensured.
If there are concerns about mishandling, contact the manufacturer or state or local immunization or health departments for guidance on whether the vaccine is usable. Data not available regarding use of typhoid vaccines in pregnant women. Use during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Use during pregnancy only when clearly needed. Data not available regarding use of typhoid vaccines in nursing women.
Not known whether distributed into milk. Abdominal pain, nausea, headache, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, rash. May be administered concurrently with or at any interval before or after inactivated vaccines, recombinant vaccines, polysaccharide vaccines, toxoids, or parenteral live vaccines.
Specific interaction studies not available. Potential for anti-infectives with activity against Salmonella Typhi to inhibit multiplication of vaccine strain and decrease immune response to the vaccine Potential for some antimalarials with antibacterial activity against Salmonella to interfere with immune response to the vaccine Decreased immune response to the vaccine when used concurrently with proguanil mg daily; not available in US as single-entity preparation No clinically important effect on immune response to the vaccine when given concurrently with chloroquine or mefloquine May be used in patients receiving chloroquine or mefloquine Possibility that buffer component of cholera vaccine live oral may interfere with typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a enteric-coated tablets; specific data not available Typhoid vaccines may be given concurrently with or at any time before or after antibody-containing preparations Data not available; immune response may be reduced in those receiving immunosuppressive agents No specific data regarding concurrent administration with typhoid vaccines May be given concurrently with or at any interval before or after MMR May be given concurrently with using different syringes and different injection sites or at any interval before or after MMR Data not available regarding concurrent administration with meningococcal vaccine Has been administered concurrently with MenACWY-D Menactra at different site without reduced antibody response or increased adverse effects May be given concurrently with using different syringes and different injection sites or at any interval before or after MenACWY-D May be given concurrently with or at any interval before or after varicella vaccine Typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccines: May be given concurrently with using different syringes and different injection sites or at any interval before or after varicella vaccine Concurrent administration with yellow fever vaccine does not interfere with immune response to either vaccine Has been given concurrently with yellow fever vaccine with or without concomitant HepA vaccine Vaqta without any apparent decrease in immune response or increase in adverse effects May be given concurrently with or at any interval before or after yellow fever vaccine May be given concurrently with using different syringes and different injection sites or at any interval before or after yellow fever vaccine Any remaining capsules must be placed back in a refrigerator after each dose until 4-dose vaccination series completed.
Contains live Salmonella Typhi of the attenuated Ty21a strain and is commercially available for oral administration as enteric-coated capsules. Principal mode of transmission of typhoid infection is enteric i. Efficacy of typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a and typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine for prevention of typhoid fever appear to be comparable when the vaccines are administered as recommended; neither vaccine is expected to provide protection against typhoid fever in all vaccine recipients.
Stimulates active immunity to typhoid fever by inducing production of both intestinal and serum antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses. Stimulates active immunity to Salmonella Typhi by inducing production of antibodies to the Vi antigen. Reduced immune responses to typhoid vaccine and lower antibody titers may occur in immunocompromised individuals e.
Minimum titer of anti-typhoid antibodies conferring protection against typhoid following vaccination with typhoid vaccine not established. When using typhoid vaccine live oral Ty21a, importance of completing 4-dose vaccination series as directed i. Importance of notifying clinicians if patient is immunocompromised since oral typhoid vaccine should not be used in individuals with a weakened immune system e.
Importance of informing clinicians of a history of allergic reactions to typhoid vaccine or any ingredient in the formulation. Importance of informing clinicians if any adverse reactions including allergic reactions occur with typhoid vaccine. Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, and any concomitant illnesses.
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.