MastoiditisFeb 15, Author: In terms of medical treatment, conservative surgery, and mastoidectomy, cure rates for the disease were found to be See the images below. Mastoidiits for the simple mastoid operation include cases of mastoiditis surgery pictures suppurative otitis media mastoiditis surgery pictures fail to respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy and progress to coalescent mastoiditis. Incidence of mastoiditis and, thus, mastoidectomy should decline further with the availability and administration of conjugated pneumococcal vaccine.
Mastoiditis - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment in Adults and Children
Feb 15, Author: In terms of medical treatment, conservative surgery, and mastoidectomy, cure rates for the disease were found to be See the images below. Indications for the simple mastoid operation include cases of acute suppurative otitis media that fail to respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy and progress to coalescent mastoiditis. Incidence of mastoiditis and, thus, mastoidectomy should decline further with the availability and administration of conjugated pneumococcal vaccine.
When considering surgery, the risks of exposure to general anesthesia must be weighed against the risk of complications and progression of the infection. Contraindications to surgery include a low hemoglobin concentration and general systemic illness that must be controlled eg, diabetes, hypertension, poor cardiac condition, bleeding disorders with prolonged bleeding and clotting time.
This is the only mastoid condition treated purely with medical management. Standard antibiotic therapy is administered for AOM, and resolution is anticipated within 2 weeks. If complications occur pain and fever persist beyond 48 h or tenderness increases , obtain cultures via the middle ear, commence new antimicrobial therapy, and obtain imaging of the mastoid.
Consider mastoidectomy if symptoms persist or if the new antibiotics fail. This is a surgically treated disease, although coverage with appropriate antibiotics is mandatory. Mastoidectomy with insertion of a tympanostomy tube is required to remove areas of coalescence within the temporal bone.
With the high frequency of invasive resistant strains in mastoiditis, initial therapy of intravenous vancomycin and ceftriaxone is most appropriate until results of the culture and sensitivity studies are available. Patients with spread of empyema beyond the mastoid require drainage of the abscess and mastoidectomy.
Intracranial spread requires a combined neurosurgical and otolaryngological approach. Postauricular swelling and erythema without subperiosteal abscess or mastoid osteitis can be treated more conservatively, using parenteral antibiotics, high-dose steroids, and tympanostomy tube insertion. Vancomycin and ceftriaxone are recommended until cultures become available.
Again, systemic steroids slow the inflammation and promote drainage. If substantial resolution of pain, fever, and erythema does not occur within hours after institution of therapy, mastoidectomy is warranted. If transfer is required, it invariably relates to the availability of subspecialists, most notably pediatric otolaryngologists or otologists, pediatric neurosurgeons, or pediatric critical care specialists.
Available radiographs should be copied and should accompany the patient, along with any available laboratory data. Instruct patients to take nothing by mouth until the receiving subspecialists evaluate their conditions. When transfer is not possible, occasional operators particularly in children should be aware that it is more important to establish wide communication between mastoid cavity and middle ear than to open all the air cells of the mastoid.
Almost always, opening the antrum and leaving an external drain will suffice. Early consultation with an otolaryngologist is appropriate and necessary if the pediatrician is not comfortable performing tympanocentesis. If cultures indicate the presence of resistant or unusual microbes, consultation with appropriate infectious-disease specialists may be required. Consultation with a neurosurgeon is appropriate if evidence of intracranial extension with abscess formation exists. Monitor the patient's temperature; it usually falls dramatically within the first 24 hours, after which the patient can be allowed up.
After obtaining cultures either by tympanocentesis or during tympanostomy tube placement, with or without mastoidectomy , continue initial antibiotic selection until cultures are reported. If the patient becomes afebrile and if swelling decreases at hours, oral medication may be selected based on culture reports.
Children who have had a mastoidectomy are released from the hospital after the discharge from the surgically implanted drain abates. The drain is normally removed hours postoperatively. Antibiotics are the principal medications used in acute surgical mastoiditis ASM. Culture results and the sensitivity of the organism ultimately govern selection of medications. Until microbiology information is available, the following principles guide the selection: Specific microbiologic diagnoses should be treated with appropriate antibiotics.
If open mastoid surgery is not undertaken, use of single, high-dose, intravenous steroids is warranted to decrease mucosal swelling and to promote natural drainage through the aditus ad antrum into the middle ear. After placement of a tympanostomy tube, with or without mastoidectomy, a pH-balanced solution or suspension of an antibiotic and steroid is useful to decrease mucosal swelling and to deliver topical antibiotics to the middle ear and mastoid.
Continue the drops until otorrhea ceases and the view through the tube shows healing mucosa without swelling or obstruction. Multiple combinations are available, the best being those thin enough to rub through the tube into the middle ear. These openings usually heal within a few days. A tympanostomy tube allows for drainage of entrapped pus and aeration of the middle ear and mastoid. It may sometimes allow topical antimicrobials to enter the middle ear space. Because it is used as a drain, a tympanostomy tube is usually placed during mastoidectomy.
Ear drops containing only antibiotics are less effective than those containing a steroid to control swelling. The study compared outcomes in 33 children who underwent this therapy with those of 67 children who underwent mastoidectomy, with few significant differences found between the two groups although members of the mastoidectomy group tended to have longer hospital stays.
Mastoidectomy is surgical removal of infected mastoid air cells. This procedure involves opening the mastoid air cells by making a postauricular incision and entering the mastoid by removing the mastoid cortex using a drill. Often, children will have thinned out cortex with pus coming through the residual bone and the mastoid can be entered easily and safely using a mastoid curette rather than a drill.
Any subperiosteal abscess is opened during this time. Upon entering the mastoid, the surgeon most often encounters granulation tissue and swollen polypoid mucosa that block the aditus ad antrum.
Most of the diseased air cells are opened, and access to the middle ear is gained by removing the blockage at the antrum. After irrigating the ear, a drain is inserted through the wound, where it is left for at least 2 days. With a simple or closed mastoidectomy, the surgeon either makes an incision behind the ear to access the mastoid region or removes the infected air cells by approaching through the ear.
Radical mastoidectomy, involves removal of the tympanic membrane, most middle ear structures, and closing the eustachian tube opening.
Modified radical mastoidectomy preserves the ossicles and tympanic membrane remnants. Mastoidectomy is indicated in cases of advanced disease, such as mastoid osteitis, intracranial extension, abscess formation, when cholesteatoma is involved, or if little improvement occurs after hours of intravenous antibiotics.
Preoperative preparation entails shaving the area behind the involved side in the postaural area a width of 3 fingers to avoid wound contamination. A postaural incision is placed a few millimeters from the postaural sulcus. In infants, the incision is placed higher and more horizontally because the mastoid process is not developed and the facial nerve is more superficial. See the image below. The incision is deepened through the periosteum to the bone.
At this stage, a subperiosteal abscess will discharge pus. Care must be taken in the upper half of the incision. The lower border of the temporalis muscle should be identified and conserved. If incising it to obtain adequate exposure is necessary, the vessels running at its lower border are first ligated or diathermied.
The periosteum is lifted from the underlying bone with periosteal elevators to expose the spine of Henle, the Macewen triangle, and the posterior bony margin of the meatus. In older children and adults, the tendon of the sternomastoid muscle has a wide attachment to the superficial aspect of the mastoid process; the fibers are scraped off with a periosteal elevator. The periosteum is elevated forward as far as the lateral end of the posterior bony meatal wall, backward for a few millimeters, and upward simultaneously pushing up the temporalis muscle to the level of the upper attachment of the pinna.
A Mollison self-retaining hemostatic mastoid retractor is inserted to hold the soft tissues away from the underlying exposed bone. The surgeon should use known visible landmarks to find the deeper landmarks.
Drilling is commenced posterior to the posterior canal wall in a vertical direction. A triangle-shaped excavation is created, with the superior limit bounded by the extension of the linea temporalis which becomes the floor of the middle fossa as one drills deeper , the posterior margin bounded by the sigmoid sinus, and the anterior margin bounded by the thinned wall of the posterior external ear canal.
The mastoid cortex is now removed over the Macewen triangle which is a rough guide to the position of the underlying mastoid antrum using a drill fitted with a large cutting burr mm. In adults, the antrum is encountered at a depth of mm. If there is a deviation in the direction of drilling, the approach to the antrum can be seriously misaligned. An ideal method to gauge the antrum is to insert an angled cell seeker beyond the posterosuperior bony meatal wall which will be the site of the antrum and then to drill toward it.
The antrum is usually apparent when opened by the drill. It can be confirmed by gentle anterior probing with a Dundas-Grant probe, which will slip into the aditus.
Exercise care to avoid dislodging the short process of the incus. Simultaneously, the size of the aditus should be judged. If it is very small, it may be enlarged slightly with a fine bone curette to ensure adequate drainage of the middle ear. The antral exposure is enlarged, opening adjacent cells until the lateral semicircular canal the important landmark at this stage can be identified. The position of middle and posterior fossa dura and the sigmoid sinus plate must be judged from the lateral oblique radiograph of the mastoid.
Next, all cells in all directions are opened by drilling gently through their separating trabecula. Clearing all cells from the sinodural angle is particularly important. The smooth plate of bone covering the middle fossa dura above and lateral sinus posteriorly is recognized easily. If the region is filled with necrotic mucosa, it may be safer to scoop out the material with a curette, always sweeping from the vertical position of the facial nerve as it descends just below the back of the lateral semicircular canal.
Cells along the vertical portion of the facial nerve are best removed under microscope visualization with a diamond burr. In a well-pneumatized skull, cells may extend anteriorly into the root of the zygoma and posteriorly into the occipital bone. These must also be followed as far as practicable. Consequent to mastoid clearance, a cavity is created with the antrum at the deepest point. The cavity is bounded above by the bony tegmen separating the region from the dura of the middle cranial fossa, behind by the bony plate over the sigmoid sinus, and in front by the posterior meatal wall and the aditus ad antrum.
In front of the bulge of the sigmoid sinus plate, cell removal uncovers the bone of the Trautman triangular space, protecting the dura of the posterior canal fossa and leading to the solid angle where the dense bone of the otic capsule protects the posterior semicircular canal.
Anteriorly and much more superficially, cells should be opened as far as they extend into the root of the zygoma. Inferiorly, cell pursuit leads to the bone covering the digastric muscle as it passes forward, deep to the inferior part of the facial nerve at the stylomastoid foramen. When cortical mastoidectomy is performed for proved suppurative mastoiditis, the bone over the sigmoid sinus should be sufficiently removed to allow insertion of a fine needle into that vessel to confirm that no thrombophlebitis exists within.
Closure of the wound is with interrupted sutures, and most otologists leave a soft drain in the lower part of the cavity for days.