RAPPORTS NATIONAUXAs a whirlpool, the crisis that has been lasting for the past 5 years has hit Italy hard in While intended to reanimate the economy, secunfaria plunged the country into deca secundaria la salle real recession under the blackmail female bodybuilding pics two parameters: The deterioration of the living conditions of a large part of the Italian population concerned especially the "working poor": Eight million Italians live with less than one thousand euro per month. The crisis has seriously damaged deca secundaria la salle middle class.
Instituto Superior de Ciencias Religiosas. Universidad de Navarra
As a whirlpool, the crisis that has been lasting for the past 5 years has hit Italy hard in While intended to reanimate the economy, it plunged the country into a real recession under the blackmail of two parameters: The deterioration of the living conditions of a large part of the Italian population concerned especially the "working poor": Eight million Italians live with less than one thousand euro per month. The crisis has seriously damaged the middle class. The Bank of Italy, in its latest study on estates, reveals that the richest 10 italians own as much as the poorest 3 million.
Furthermore, according to Coldiretti, in 12 months, the proportion of Italians who cannot afford an adequate full meal at least every two days, has doubled now The year has recorded a loss of 4 million jobs ILO and the closure of more than Some entrepreneurs have even committed suicide.
The officially registered unemployed rose to 2. The increased insecurity and undeclared work have affected especially the younger generations. The hours of extraordinary redundancy payment almost doubled compared to January All these negative data show a country that is falling down, and in this context, from a country sponsoring the MDGs, it could start benefitting from them as well.
Italian civil society is involved in the process promoted by the United Nations for the establishment of a new perspective and new commitments beyond , mainly through the Italian GCAP, a coalition representing more than 60 organizations NGO, Third sector, trade unions, and that is part of the international initiative "Beyond ".
The first step in consists of a national consultation process, which aims to influence the official position that Italy will bring in the UN and in Europe.
The UN meeting in September will begin the process of defining a new framework of commitment and global actions for the development and the fight against poverty, replacing the current goals. On a national level the consultation between institutions and civil society could be an opportunity to give the country a role in the definition of the European position. Hopefully, the process Beyond will be an opportunity to build a new era of development and cooperation policies, that could be taken up by the new government.
Italy is unfortunately very far from contributing to its European commitments. Although many of Italian cooperation projects relate to the achievement of the Goals, in particular those on education, food security and health, no official reports have been made to evaluate what has been achieved by the Italian Cooperation for the MDGs.
The Minister for International Cooperation and Integration, Andrea Riccardi, a new post established by the Monti Government, took up the challenge and opened dialogue with ngos, institutions, universities and the nonprofit world, calling for an Inter-institutional table.
This step was shared and participated by many stakeholders to identify tools and practices of our international solidarity in a systemic framework. In October , Riccardi set up a Forum of Milan, which for a short time brought international cooperation at the center of foreign politics. The guidelines of Italian ODA for identify Africa, the Mediterranean and the Middle East as priority areas in support of the fight against poverty, of the strengthening of democratic processes, peace and dialogue.
Thanks to this positive climate, the work to re-draft the law on Development Cooperation was initiated, but it stopped right away with the anticipated end of the Legislation. Civil society will watch over so that the next government will enhance the path initiated by the new Minister, supported by an appropriate new law. In a context of strong and generalized reduction of public spending, of resources available to the ministries and for services to citizens, thanks to the Spending Review and the Stability pact law, the Ministry of Defense, from to , scored an increase in its budget.
Twenty-five times higher than that of social policies — the defense budget passes from This growth in the Defense budget indicate the will of the Italian government to follow the path of "military Keynesianism", through the use of public spending in this sector to stimulate domestic demand for consumption and investment. In the area of environmental policies and public works, the Monti government has tried to use the EU funds for the development of the South of Italy, stimulating small and medium-sized public works construction of schools, hydrogeological instability of the territory.
While the French Court of Auditors pointed to the Hollande Government that the high-speed train line Turin-Lyon, with a cost of 26 billion euro, is not validated by transport studies and financial credibility, the Monti Government has pushed for a political agreement with Hollande to revive the project, notwithstanding strong citizen opposition.
It is very disappointing because it has a very short breath only 8 years and it does not identify the strengths and solution towards a policy of exit hydrocarbon dependancy.
Indeed the "strategy" is pointing to the "resumption of sustainable production of national hydrocarbons" though Italian oil is scarce and of low quality: The Monti government has worked since inception on two major reforms. The pension reform, which was approved in early December of enforced since , has established a flexible retirement age, increased to 62 years old for women with a range that covers up to 70 years old, while for men the range of flexibility is between 66 and 70 years old.
The urgency with which the measure was launched has created a serious problem for the hundreds of thousands of workers who, under the previous retirement age, agreed with and encouraged by their companies for early resignation from work in ; in fact, they were a response to the employment crisis reported by the companies themselves. Out of all this the phenomenon of "esodati" income deprived early retirees burst out- estimated at around , workers - who, without warning, found themselves suddenly without a job and no pension, therefore with no income.
The government was totally unprepared to intervene. The reform will, however, have its real effects in As far as the reform of the labor market - Law no. The areas on which the new law insists are the entry and exit ways in the labor market.
Following the discussions on rights and principles eg. Italy has considered as a top priority the strengthening of borders, at the expense of its international obligations related to protecting refugees and asylum-seekers and saving life at sea and has strengthened its control measures over the border, regardless of the human costs.
In almost men, women and children have drowned in the Mediterranean sea trying to reach Europe. On several occasions, Italy has pushed back people to Libya, where they were then arrested and subjected to ill-treatment. Although this practice has been condemned by the European Court of Human Rights in case Hirsi vs Italy and despite substantial public evidence that migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers still face serious abuse in Libya, on 3 April Italy signed a new agreement with Libya on migration control.
Amnesty International repeatedly asked the Italian authorities to make the content of the agreement public but the requests went unheeded. The text of the agreement was leaked to the Italian press on 18 June. The provisions in the agreement confirm that Italian authorities seek support from Libya in stemming migration flows, while turning a blind eye to the fact that migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers are at real risk of serious human rights violations and abuses there.
However, apart from a tokenistic mention of human rights, there is no indication of any concrete measures to prevent human rights violations and abuses from occurring in the context of this cooperation.
Italy must ensure adequate protection for migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers and adopt fair immigration and asylum policies, including by granting access to the territory and fair and effective asylum procedures for people in need of international protection. The Italian Government should set aside any existing migration control agreements with Libya and it should not enter into any further agreements with Libya until the latter is able to demonstrate that it respects and protects the human rights of refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants and has in place a satisfactory system for assessing and recognizing claims for international protection.
The ownership of Ilva ex Italsider , the largest steel industry in Italy, and the third largest in Europe, based in the city of Taranto, has been accused for manslaughter and environmental disaster, poisoning of food substances, intentional omission of precautions against accidents, damage of public goods, spills of dangerous substances and pollution. The report has assessed the correlation between the very high pollution, caused by Ilva, and the health damage provoked to workers' and inhabitants health.
The seizure of the plant puts at risk thousands of jobs. A Citizens' committee has asked for the stop to the "threat of unemployment" and the depredation of the Ionian area. The Citizens' committee does not accept the opposition "work vs health", because this dichotomy alters the reality of the situation of Taranto.
Meanwhile, the government tries to prevent the stop of production. The Minister of Environment, Corrado Clini, made a decree granting the right of use for the plant, which had been seized by the Judiciary on July 26, - thus neglecting to protect the health of citizens and workers and following the logic of profit over rights.
After years of denial, a financial transactions tax was introduced in December The corrective measures are about the enlargement of the tax base to all derivative instruments; the review of exemptions; the application of the tax to individual transactions to discourage high-frequency trading; use the proceeds to domestic social politics, to international development cooperation and combating climate change.
This could be a first political step to regulate the finance, but it is not enough. It is disappointing that the Government and Parliament have not been more courageous and ambitious in its definition, yielding to the interests of financial lobbies.
Corrections and enhancements are then delegated to the new legislature and to the Government that will take office in It will be also responsible for advancing the important process to an enhanced cooperation between the EU and 11 countries, which began in at the European level. It will come out with the introduction of a European FTT. It also analyses problems in the way the MDGs are formulated, arguing that unless these are taken care of, the human development conditions of countries such as Zambia will remain poor for a long time.
Finally, it makes proposals for post reform. From the late s and s Zambia implemented the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund inspired Structural Adjustment Programme SAP , under which significant cuts to public expenditure were applied, considerably weakening delivery of social services in the health, education and other sectors. Despite progress, human development is still low, and some of the goals will not be met.
Yet these gains have not been felt by the most vulnerable sections of society. The prevalence of children under the age of five who are underweight fell from To reach the target of Other challenges are the low completion rates at secondary school level despite the increase from Tertiary education remains inaccessible to most and is poorly funded. At 1 to 57, the primary-teacher—pupil ratio is above the recommended standard.
The ratio of girls to boys in primary education improved from 0. The target will be met. However challenges abound with secondary, tertiary education and literacy rates.
In secondary schools the ratio of girls to boys decreased from 0. The ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education stood at 0. The number of deaths to under-five children dropped from per 1, live births in to in But this remains high and considerably far from reaching the target of Similarly, while infant mortality declined from Maternal mortality decreased from deaths per , live births in to deaths per , live births in , again far from the target of Investment is needed to increase the number of trained mid-wives at birth, install basic health infrastructure and improve roads and transport systems, especially in rural areas, to ensure pregnant women get to health centres on time.
The number of people tested for HIV increased from , in to 1,, in In , HIV incidence was estimated at 1. The number of people on anti-retroviral treatment ART increased from 30, in to , in Rural areas are inadequately covered.
While the indicators pertaining to HIV and AIDS are nevertheless on course to being met, much more effort is required to meet the indicators on malaria, a major cause of illness and death in both children and adults.
The number of new malaria cases declined from in to in The tuberculosis notification rate decreased from per , in to per , in Several more followed until when national development planning was abandoned as the country focused on implementing the SAP and developing the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers which many argued represented an effort by the World Bank and IMF to impose neo-liberal economic policies on poor countries.
In terms of performance, the Annual Progress Report on the Implementation of the FNDP found that in , slightly over half of the targets set were met. This figure dropped to The number of indicators which sectors have not reported on went up considerably over the same period. The report concluded that this may be a sign that the sectors are opting not to report, rather than confirm targets have been missed. The evaluation assessed a number of pro-poor programmes including agriculture, education and health.