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Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.
Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs. Medhya Rasayanas are group of medicinal plants described in Ayurveda Indian system of medicine with multi-fold benefits, specifically to improve memory and intellect by Prabhava specific action.
Medhya Rasayana is a group of 4 medicinal plants that can be used singly or in combinations. They are Mandukaparni Centella asiatica Linn. Yet in practice few more handful drugs used with same aim are mentioned else where in the Ayurveda classical textbooks. Medhya Rasayana are used either in polyherbal preparations or alone. This paper is an attempt to present update on these drugs. Evidences used are mostly facts from researches on animal model or on bioactive principles with some of preclinical works on human system.
Mandukaparni Centella asiatica Linn. Fresh whole plant juice is used for therapeutic purposes as Medhya cognitive enhancer. Chloroform extract of Centella showed highest poly phenolic activity followed by methanol extracts 9. These two namely poly phenols and flavinoids are responsible for potent anti oxidant and terminate free radicals.
Study showed that Menotab is an ideal medication for relief of postmenopausal symptoms as a short-term therapy. Yastimadhu Glycirrhiza glabra Linn. Fine powder of dried root is used internally with milk for therapeutic purpose as Medhya. Yashtimadhu is cytotoxic and its prolonged use may lead to pseudoaldosteronism,[ 18 ] hyperkalemia,[ 19 ] and hypertension.
Guduchi Tinospora cordifolia Wild Miers is a large glabrous, deciduous, climbing shrub of Menispermaceae family found throughout tropical India[ 30 ] [ Figure 3 ]. Juice of whole plant is used therapeutically as Medhya.
Its root is known for its anti stress, anti-leprotic and anti-malarial activities. Shankhapushpi Convolvulus pleuricaulis Chois is a perennial, prostate or sub erect spreading hairy herb,[ 46 ] found throughout India[ 47 ] [ Figure 4 ]. Recommended therapeutic form is fine paste of whole plant. Highly regarded as Medhya intellect promoter.
Neuroprotectve and intellect promoting activity implicated to free radical scavenging and antioxidant property. Herbalists believe that Shankhpushpi calms the nerves by regulating the body's production of the stress hormones, adrenaline and cortisol. Aindri Bacopa monniera commonly called as Brahmi belongs to Scrophulariaceae family. Most beneficial therapeutic form is macerated whole plant juice.
Properties are said to be similar to that of Mandukaparni. Isolation of a new saponin, a jujubogenin, named bacopasaponin G, and a new glycoside, phenylethyl alcohol was reported.
Recent studies have indicated antioxidant effect of bacosides triternoid saponin isolated from Bacopa monniera against chronic toxin induced oxidative damage in rat brain[ 75 ] and thyroid T 4 hormone stimulating activity in animals in high doses. Jyotishmati Celastrus panniculata is a large, woody, climbing shrub with ovate or obvovate leaves found all over India. Seeds are yellowish, ellipsoid or ovoid enclosed in a scarlet aril[ 77 ] [ Figure 6 ], Seed oil Jyotishmati Taila is known for Medhya action.
Kushmanda Benincasa hispida belonging to Cucurbitaceae an extensive trailing or climbing herb cultivated throughout the plains of India as a vegetable[ 83 ] [ Figure 7 ]. The fruit, broadly cylindrical, is covered with a waxy bloom. Vacha Acorus calamus of Araceae family is a semiaquatic, perennial, aromatic herb with its rhizome being horizontal, rounded, somewhat vertically compressed, spongy and leaves grass like and sword shaped; grown all over India[ 89 ] [ Figure 8 ].
Rhizome is useful part having Medhya quality. It has been used in Indian and Chinese system of medicine for hundreds of years to cure diseases especially the central nervous system CNS abnormalities.
Acoradin, galangin, 2, 4, 5- trimethoxy benzaldehyde, 2,5- dimethoxybenzoquinone, calamendiol,spathulenol and sitosterol are also present 2. It has been proved for its analgesic and anticonvulsant,[ 96 ] hepatoprotective,[ 97 ] antioxidant,[ 98 , 99 ] antimutagenic,[ ] sedative and hypothermic effects. Jatamamsi Nardostachys jatamamsi is an erect perennial aromatic herb with long, stout, woody, greyish, rhizomatous, tail-like rootstock covered with reddish-brown hairs or tufted fibrous remains of the petioles of withered radical leaves[ ] [ Figure 9 ], and belongs to Valerianaceae family.
Rhizome is used for medicinal purposes as it is Bhutaghna or Manasa Doshahara relieves of psychiatric problems and Medhya. Data available so far support procognitive activity of herbs selected for discussion; at the same time demand substantial evidences and revalidation in humans. Mostly the above said herbs act on the basis of antioxidant, adaptogenic or essential trace elements present in them.
Their activity on modulation of biological axis and neurotransmitters requires further investigation. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Pharmacogn Rev v. Reena Kulkarni , K. Girish , 1 and Abhimanyu Kumar 2. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Ayurveda, memory enhancer, Medhya Rasayana , nootropic. Evidence based approach Mandukaparni Centella asiatica Linn. Open in a separate window. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: Database on Medicinal plants used in Ayurveda and Sidha.
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