Page not availableAndrogenic-anabolic steroids AAS are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that low testosterone glands be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual adverse effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term effects of anabolic steroids on the cardiovascular system of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight.
Doping Prevention: Cardiovascular system
Androgenic-anabolic steroids AAS are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field.
Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual adverse effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed.
Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions. The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour.
AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein HDL -, HDL2 - and HDL3 -cholesterol levels.
In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS. Generally, AAS seem to induce increments of aggression and hostility. AAS dependence or withdrawal effects such as depression seem to occur only in a small number of AAS users.
Dissatisfaction with the body and low self-esteem may lead to the so-called 'reverse anorexia syndrome' that predisposes to the start of AAS use. Many other adverse effects have been associated with AAS misuse, including disturbance of endocrine and immune function, alterations of sebaceous system and skin, changes of haemostatic system and urogenital tract. One has to keep in mind that the scientific data may underestimate the actual untoward effects because of the relatively low doses administered in those studies, since they do not approximate doses used by illicit steroid users.
The mechanism of action of AAS may differ between compounds because of variations in the steroid molecule and affinity to androgen receptors. Several pathways of action have been recognised. The enzyme 5-alpha-reductase seems to play an important role by converting AAS into dihydrotestosterone androstanolone that acts in the cell nucleus of target organs, such as male accessory glands, skin and prostate. Other mechanisms comprises mediation by the enzyme aromatase that converts AAS in female sex hormones estradiol and estrone , antagonistic action to estrogens and a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors.
Furthermore, AAS stimulate erythropoietin synthesis and red cell production as well as bone formation but counteract bone breakdown. The effects on the cardiovascular system are proposed to be mediated by the occurrence of AAS -induced atherosclerosis due to unfavourable influence on serum lipids and lipoproteins , thrombosis, vasospasm or direct injury to vessel walls, or may be ascribed to a combination of the different mechanisms.
AAS -induced increment of muscle tissue can be attributed to hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibres, in which key roles are played by satellite cell number and ultrastructure, androgen receptors and myonuclei. Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids AAS has been linked to a variety of different cardiovascular side effects.
In case reports, acute myocardial infarction is the most common event presented, but other adverse cardiovascular effects such as left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced left ventricular function, arterial thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and several cases of sudden cardiac death have also been reported.
However, to date there are no prospective, randomized, interventional studies on the long-term cardiovascular effects of abuse of AAS. In this review we have studied the relevant literature regarding several risk factors for cardiovascular disease where the effects of AAS have been scrutinized: These include a tendency to produce myocardial hypertrophy, a possible increase of heart chamber diameters, unequivocal alterations of diastolic function and ventricular relaxation, and most likely a subclinically compromised left ventricular contractile function.
However, the clinical significance of this effect remains modest. The concomitant effects on the humoral coagulation cascade are more complex and include activation of both pro-coagulatory and fibrinolytic pathways. A degree of reversibility seems to be consistent, though. The most prominent changes are concomitant elevations of LDL and decreases of HDL, effects that increase the risk of coronary artery disease. And finally, 6 the use of AAS appears to confer an increased risk of life-threatening arrhythmia leading to sudden death, although the underlying mechanisms are still far from being elucidated.
Taken together, various lines of evidence involving a variety of pathophysiologic mechanisms suggest an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in users of anabolic androgenic steroids. Left ventricular early myocardial dysfunction after chronic misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids: Anabolic androgenic steroids AAS are sometimes used by power athletes to improve performance by increasing muscle mass and strength.
Recent bioptical data have shown that in athletes under the pharmacological effects of AAS, a focal increase in myocardial collagen content might occur as a repair mechanism against myocardial damage. To investigate the potential underlying left ventricular myocardial dysfunction after chronic misuse of AAS in athletes by use of Doppler myocardial imaging DMI and strain rate imaging SRI.
Standard Doppler echocardiography, DMI, SRI and ECG treadmill test were undertaken by 45 bodybuilders, including 20 athletes misusing AAS for at least 5 years users , by 25 anabolic-free bodybuilders non-users and by 25 age-matched healthy sedentary controls, all men. The groups were matched for age. Systolic blood pressure was higher in athletes 9 vs 5 mm Hg than in controls.
Left ventricular mass index did not significantly differ between the two groups of athletes. In particular, both users and non-users showed increased wall thickness and relative wall thickness compared with controls, whereas left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and transmitral Doppler indexes were comparable for the three groups.
Colour DMI analysis showed significantly lower myocardial early: Several years after chronic misuse of AAS, power athletes show a subclinical impairment of both systolic and diastolic myocardial function, strongly associated with mean dosage and duration of AAS use.
The combined use of DMI and SRI may therefore be useful for the early identification of patients with more diffused cardiac involvement, and eventually for investigation of the reversibility of such myocardial effects after discontinuation of the drug. Item detail - f lipper e n uvola. Androgenic anabolic steroid abuse and the cardiovascular system.