Steroid use in AustraliaTerry Goldsworthy receives funding from Bond University in the form of an internal grant to conduct research into the use of Performance and Image Enhancing Anabolic steroid statistics australia. Laura McGillivray receives funding from Bond University in the form of an internal grant to conduct research into the use of Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs. Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence. Two new reports reveal that Australia is catching fewer steroid shipments at our borders — yet the numbers of national steroid seizures and arrests have risen to steriod anabolic steroid statistics australia. It comes just after the release of another Crime Satistics report, test cyp deca and masteron cycle illicit drugs in Australia.
Steroid seizures and arrests soar to record highs in Australia
Terry Goldsworthy receives funding from Bond University in the form of an internal grant to conduct research into the use of Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs. Laura McGillivray receives funding from Bond University in the form of an internal grant to conduct research into the use of Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs.
Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence. Two new reports reveal that Australia is catching fewer steroid shipments at our borders — yet the numbers of national steroid seizures and arrests have risen to record highs.
It comes just after the release of another Crime Commission report, on illicit drugs in Australia. This shows that the number of detections of performance- and image-enhancing drugs at the Australian border fell by a third in But the number of steroid-related drug seizures and arrests continued to rise across Australia, continuing a decade-long trend.
So what is the true picture of illegal performance- and image-enhancing drug use in Australia? And where are these drugs coming from? Steroids are the single best-known performance- and image-enhancing drug — but that category also includes peptides and hormones.
The Australian Standard Classification of Drugs of Concern , which is used by the Crime Commission, distinguishes four classes of substances as anabolic agents and selected hormones. Steroids still account for the majority of performance- and image-enhancing drugs detected on our border, with some Postal channels remain the main method of importing such drugs, although importation by air cargo is increasing. The latest Crime Commission report suggests that one reason for the drop in border interceptions could be increased domestic production.
There is also evidence of the domestic diversion of chemicals used to produce injectable forms of steroids, suggesting possible domestic production of these substances, which may account for some of the decrease in border detections.
Internet sales are another source for the drugs, with unregulated online pharmacies offering global accessibility to the drugs. The report also notes:. Internationally, organised crime groups are heavily involved in the trafficking of [performance- and image-enhancing drugs]. Organised crime groups, particularly outlaw motorcycle gangs and their associates, are involved in the trafficking of [performance- and image-enhancing drugs] in the Australian market.
Despite increased media portrayals of performance- and image-enhancing drug use in professional sporting contexts, elite athletes are in fact, one of the smallest sub-groups of users. Instead, the new Organised Crime in Australia Report states:.
One of the key drivers of the market is a strong youth culture, particularly prevalent among young males, that is focused on a muscular and athletic physical appearance. The Australian Needle and Syringe Programs Survey found that the majority of injecting users in were heterosexual males, who were typically 18 years at first drug injection — demographics that have remained stable since The National Drugs Strategy Household Survey found more than twice as many men as women are using performance- and image-enhancing drugs - specifically young men.
One Australian study suggests that use is higher among young people than the general population, with 2. Similar recent findings in the US show that teenage steroid use was equivalent to or above use of methamphetamine, heroin and crack cocaine. A number of trends in the drug-related attitudes and behaviours are unique to performance- and image-enhancing drug users, and these offer a clearer picture of the growing subculture. One US study reported similar themes. A consequence of this view is that internet forums and other users have instead become primary sources of mis information.
Australia has seen substantial increases in injecting performance- and image-enhancing drug users. In particular, New South Wales saw an increase in use from 4. Needle and syringe program workers, who come across a lot of steroid and other drug users, have warned that users have inaccurate information about how to use performance- and image-enhancing drugs as well as their effects. This is often due to an over-reliance on internet and gym sources. There has been an increased law enforcement focus on steroid use.
Queensland has amended the Drugs Misuse Regulation Act to boost the scheduling of steroids to Schedule 1: That move towards criminalisation is similar to tough penalties introduced in NSW and Victoria. While the number of steroid-related arrests remains comparatively low when compared to amphetamines and cannabis, steroid arrests are rapidly approaching the level of cocaine arrests.
Steroid arrests have been trending upwards while cocaine has remained stable and heroin has decreased over the last five years.
Arrests for steroids rose The longer-term trend is even more concerning. Australia needs to develop a more comprehensive understanding of not only why people are motivated to use these drugs, but also how users justify their now-criminalised actions in the face of escalating law enforcement. Bond University is conducting research into the illicit use of performance- and image-enhancing drugs.
The purpose of the study — including this short, anonymous survey — is to measure how these drugs are used in the community. We also want to better understand the perceived benefits and harms of using them, the type and severity of physical and psychological side effects that user may experience, the addiction potential or lack of addiction potential of these drugs, and criminal linkages. With greater knowledge about this thriving subculture, we can better address whether criminalisation or harm-reduction strategies are the most appropriate ways to tackle this complex issue.
The business of faith: Inquisition and crime in the Middle Ages — York, York. Methodist Studies Seminar — Manchester, Manchester. Available editions United Kingdom.
Terry Goldsworthy and Laura McGillivray. Bottles of anabolic steroids seized in a raid in New South Wales. In , steroid border detections decreased by Terry Goldsworthy sourced from ACC data.
The report also notes: Illegal steroid demand is being met by outlaw motorcycle gangs. Who are the most likely users? Instead, the new Organised Crime in Australia Report states: Australian trends Australia has seen substantial increases in injecting performance- and image-enhancing drug users. Weight of seizures decreased by 8. But there were more arrests in Queensland than any other state Steroid arrests as a proportion of national arrests compared to heroin and cocaine arrests.
How should we respond? Your donation helps deliver fact-based journalism. You might also like. Expert Database Find experts with knowledge in: Community Community standards Republishing guidelines Friends of The Conversation Research and Expert Database Analytics Events Our feeds Donate Company Who we are Our charter Our team Our blog Partners and funders Contributing institutions Resource for media Contact us Stay informed and subscribe to our free daily newsletter and get the latest analysis and commentary directly in your inbox.
Follow us on social media.