The 15 Biggest Steroid, P.E.D., and Doping Scandals in Sports HistoryThis article is about the history of competitors at the Olympic Games using banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs. The use aanabolic performance-enhancing anabolic steroid scandals or more formally known as PEDs, and more broadly, the use of any external device to nefariously influence scanvals outcome of a sporting event has been a part of the Olympics since anabolic steroid scandals inception in Ancient Greece. One speculation as to why men were required to compete naked was to prevent the use of sustanon deca cycle pct accoutrements and to keep women from competing in events specifically designed for men. For example, the winner of the marathon at the GamesThomas Hickswas given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even sccandals the race. During the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes discovered ways anabolic steroid scandals improve their athletic abilities by boosting testosterone.
Historical Timeline - Drug Use in Sports - writingdesk.pw
This article is about the history of competitors at the Olympic Games using banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs. The use of performance-enhancing tactics or more formally known as PEDs, and more broadly, the use of any external device to nefariously influence the outcome of a sporting event has been a part of the Olympics since its inception in Ancient Greece. One speculation as to why men were required to compete naked was to prevent the use of extra accoutrements and to keep women from competing in events specifically designed for men.
For example, the winner of the marathon at the Games , Thomas Hicks , was given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even during the race. During the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes discovered ways to improve their athletic abilities by boosting testosterone.
As their methods became more extreme, it became increasingly evident that the use of performance-enhancing drugs was not only a threat to the integrity of sport but could also have potentially fatal side effects on the athlete.
The only Olympic death linked to athletic drug use occurred at the Rome Games of During the cycling road race, Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamine , which had caused him to lose consciousness during the race. The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall , a Swedish pentathlete at the Summer Olympics , who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use, 'two beers to steady his nerves'.
The most systematic case of drug use for athletic achievement is that of the East German Olympic teams of the s and s. In , documents were discovered that showed many East German female athletes, especially swimmers, had been administered anabolic steroids and other drugs by their coaches and trainers. Girls as young as eleven were started on the drug regimen without consent from their parents. American female swimmers, including Shirley Babashoff , accused the East Germans of using performance-enhancing drugs as early as the Summer Games.
There was no suspicion of cheating on the part of the East German female swimmers even though their medal tally increased from four silvers and one bronze in to ten golds out of a possible 12 , six silvers, and one bronze in No clear evidence was discovered until after the fall of the Berlin Wall , when the aforementioned documents proved that East Germany had embarked on a state-sponsored drug regimen to dramatically improve their competitiveness at the Olympic Games and other international sporting events.
Many of the East German authorities responsible for this program have been subsequently tried and found guilty of various crimes in the German penal system. According to British journalist Andrew Jennings , a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts".
The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games. Documents obtained in revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements.
Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the Summer Olympics. A very publicized steroid-related disqualification at an Olympic Games was the case of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson , who won the Men's metres at the Seoul Olympics , but tested positive for stanozolol.
His gold medal was subsequently stripped and awarded to runner-up Carl Lewis , who himself had tested positive for banned substances prior to the Olympics, but had not been banned due to a lack of consistency in the application of the rules.
At that time National Olympic Committees had leeway to determine whether a specific athlete met the criteria to be banned from Olympic competition. The Summer Olympics and Winter Olympics have shown that the effort to eliminate performance-enhancing drugs from the Olympics is not over, as several medalists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified due to failing a drug test.
During the Winter Olympics , only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The IOC-established drug testing regimen now known as the "Olympic Standard" has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate.
Both urine and blood testing was used in a coordinated effort to detect banned substances and recent blood transfusions. While several athletes were barred from competition by their National Olympic Committees prior to the Games, six athletes failed drug tests while in competition in Beijing.
What follows is a list of all the athletes that have tested positive for a banned substance either during or after an Olympic Games in which they competed. In the IOC banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs, instituted a Medical Commission, and created a list of banned substances. Though no athletes were caught doping at the Summer Olympics, it has been claimed that athletes had begun using testosterone and other drugs for which tests had not been yet developed.
A report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games". A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine.
Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The organizers of the Los Angeles games had refused to provide the IOC doping authorities with a safe prior to the start of the games.
Due to a lack of security, medical records were subsequently stolen. Five athletes tested positive for the stimulant bromantan and were disqualified by the IOC, but later reinstated after an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport: Vitaly Slionssarenko, physician to the Lithuanian cycling team and team coach Boris Vasilyev were expelled from the games. The Irish long-distance runner Marie McMahon Davenport got a reprimand after testing positive for the stimulant phenylpropanolamine ,    and Cuban judoka Estella Rodriguez Villanueva got a reprimand after she tested positive for the diuretic furosemide.
Out of the 4, samples that were collected from participating athletes at the games, six athletes with positive specimens were ousted from the competition.
Further positive tests were found in , as samples had been sealed and stored for eight years. The quality of the original testing was questioned when the BBC reported that samples positive for EPO were labeled as negative by Chinese laboratories in July, In August , the Turkish Athletics Federation confirmed that an in-competition test of Elvan Abeylegesse at the IAAF World Championships in Athletics had been retested and found to be positive for a controlled substance, and that she had been temporarily suspended.
In May , following the Russian doping scandal , the IOC announced that 32 targeted retests had come back positive for performance-enhancing drugs, of which Russian News Agency TASS announced that 14 were from Russian athletes, 11 of them track and field athletes, including Olympic champion high jumper Anna Chicherova.
Authorities have sent the B-samples for confirmation testing. On 18 June , the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the Olympic Games, the samples of the following seven weightlifters had returned positive results: In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon the athletes.
Zairov and Ilyin had been serving previous suspensions. On 28 July , it was announced that retests of samples from the Summer Olympics detected a positive sample for performance-enhancing drugs from Aksana Miankova of Belarus, who won a gold medal in the women's hammer throw.
Russian teammates were stripped of their gold Olympic medals, as Yuliya Chermoshanskaya had her samples reanalyzed and tested positive for two prohibited substances. On 24 August , the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the Olympic Games, the samples of the following athletes had returned positive results: In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon the athletes, who remain provisionally suspended in view of potential anti-doping rule violations until their cases are closed.
On 29 August , some non-official reports indicated that Artur Taymazov of Uzbekistan had been stripped of the Olympic gold medal in the freestyle wrestling kg event due to a positive test for doping.
They included three Russian medalists: Bronze medal weightlifter Tigran Martirosyan of Armenia men's 69 kg event and fellow weightlifters Alexandru Dudoglo 9th place of Moldova and Intigam Zairov 9th place of Azerbaijan were also disqualified.
On 1 September , the IOC disqualified a further two athletes. Cuban discus thrower Yarelys Barrios , who won a silver medal in the women's discus, was disqualified after testing positive for Acetazolamide and ordered to return her medal. Qatari sprinter Samuel Francis , who finished 16th in the meters, was also disqualified after testing positive for Stanozolol. On 13 September , four more Russian athletes were disqualified for doping offenses. Two of those were medalists from the Summer Olympics: Inga Abitova , who finished 6th in the 10, meters , and cyclist Ekaterina Gnidenko also tested positive for a banned substance and were disqualified.
On 23 September , some non-official reports indicate wrestler Vasyl Fedoryshyn of Ukraine has been stripped of the Olympic silver medal in the freestyle 60 kg event due to a positive test for doping. She won a bronze medal in the women's high jump.
Russia would likely keep the bronze medal, as the fourth-place athlete in the competition was also from Russia. On 26 October , the IOC disqualified nine more athletes for failing drugs tests at the Games.
Among them were six medal winners: On 17 November , the IOC disqualified 16 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the games. Among them were 10 medal winners: On 25 November , the IOC disqualified 5 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the games. Among them were 3 medal winners: On 12 January , the IOC disqualified five more athletes for failing drug tests at the Games. These included three Chinese women's weightlifting gold medalists: Two women athletes from Belarus were disqualified: On 1 March , the IOC disqualified Victoria Tereshchuk of Ukraine due to use of turinabol and stripped her of the bronze medal in modern pentathlon.
By April , the Summer Olympics has had the most 50 Olympic medals stripped for doping violations. Russia is the leading country with 14 medals stripped off. It was announced prior to the Summer games that half of all competitors would be tested for drugs, with scientists set to take 6, samples between the start of the games and the end of the Paralympic games.
The Olympic anti-doping laboratory would test up to samples every day for more than prohibited substances. During the "In-competition" period Olympic competitors can be tested at any time without notice or in advance. British sprinter Dwain Chambers , cyclist David Millar and shot putter Carl Myerscough  competed in London after the British Olympic Association 's policy of punishing drug cheats with lifetime bans was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport. Russian Darya Pishchalnikova participated in the Olympics and was awarded a silver medal.
However, she tested positive for the anabolic steroid oxandrolone in the samples taken in May According to The New York Times , the email reached three top WADA officials but the agency decided not to open an inquiry and instead sent her email to Russian sports officials.
Prior to the Olympic competition, several prominent track and field athletes were ruled out of the competition due to failed tests. Syrian hurdler Ghfran Almouhamad became the first track-and-field athlete to be suspended following a positive in-competition doping sample.
A WADA report released in detailed an extensive Russian state-sponsored doping program implicating athletes, coaches, various Russian institutions, doctors and labs. The report stated that the London Olympic Games "were, in a sense, sabotaged by the admission of athletes who should have not been competing" and detailed incidents of bribery and bogus urine samples. The report recommended that Russia be barred from track and field events for the Olympics.
It also recommended lifetime bans for five coaches and five athletes from the country, including runners Mariya Savinova , Ekaterina Poistogova , Anastasiya Bazdyreva , Kristina Ugarova , and Tatjana Myazina. On 15 June , it was announced that four London Olympic weightlifting champions had tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs.
If confirmed, Kazakhstan would drop from 12th to 23rd in the medal standings. Six other lifters who competed at the Games also tested positive after hundreds of samples were reanalysed. On 13 July , the IOC announced that Yuliya Kalina of Ukraine had been disqualified from the Summer Olympics and ordered to return the bronze medal from the 58 kg weightlifting event. Reanalysis of Kalina's samples from London resulted in a positive test for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone turinabol.
On 9 August , the IOC announced that Oleksandr Pyatnytsya of Ukraine would be stripped of his silver medal in the javelin throw after he tested positive for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone turinabol.